Mucopolysaccharidosis type I

Francyne Kubaski, Fabiano de Oliveira Poswar, Kristiane Michelin-Tirelli, Ursula da Silveira Matte, Dafne D. Horovitz, Anneliese Lopes Barth, Guilherme Baldo, Filippo Vairo, Roberto Giugliani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by the deficiency of α-l-iduronidase, leading to the storage of dermatan and heparan sulfate. There is a broad phenotypical spectrum with the presence or absence of neurological impairment. The classical form is known as Hurler syndrome, the intermediate form as Hurler-Scheie, and the most attenuated form is known as Scheie syndrome. Phenotype seems to be largely influenced by genotype. Patients usually develop several somatic symptoms such as abdominal hernias, extensive dermal melanocytosis, thoracolumbar kyphosis odontoid dysplasia, arthropathy, coxa valga and genu valgum, coarse facial features, respiratory and cardiac impairment. The diagnosis is based on the quantification of α-l-iduronidase coupled with glycosaminoglycan analysis and gene sequencing. Guidelines for treatment recommend hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for young Hurler patients (usually at less than 30 months of age). Intravenous enzyme replacement is approved and is the standard of care for attenuated-Hurler-Scheie and Scheie-forms (without cognitive impairment) and for the late-diagnosed severe-Hurler-cases. Intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy is under evaluation, but it seems to be safe and effective. Other therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy, gene editing, stop codon read through, and therapy with small molecules are under development. Newborn screening is now allowing the early identification of MPS I patients, who can then be treated within their first days of life, potentially leading to a dramatic change in the disease's progression. Supportive care is very important to improve quality of life and might include several surgeries throughout the life course.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number161
JournalDiagnostics
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Enzyme replacement therapy
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Hurler syndrome
  • Hurler-Scheie syndrome
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I
  • Scheie syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry

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