Transurethral resection of the prostate is the most commonly performed procedure for the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, in recent years, various minimally invasive surgical therapies have been introduced to treat BPH. These include laser-based procedures such as holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and photoselective vaporization of the prostate as well as thermal ablation procedures such as water vapor thermal therapy (Rezum), all of which result in volume reduction of periurethral prostatic tissue. In comparison, a permanent metallic device (UroLift) can be implanted to pull open the prostatic urethra without an associated decrease in prostate size, and selective catheter-directed prostate artery embolization results in a global decrease in prostate size. The goal of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the underlying anatomic changes that occur in BPH as visualized on MRI and to describe the appearance of the prostate on MRI performed after these procedures. Complications encountered on imaging after these procedures are also discussed. Although MRI is not currently used in the routine preprocedural evaluation of BPH, emerging data support a role for MRI in predicting postprocedure outcomes.
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging