Objective Systolic anterior motion of mitral valve (MV) leaflets is a main pathophysiologic feature of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Thus, restricted leaflet motion that occurs with MV stenosis might be expected to minimize outflow tract obstruction related to systolic anterior motion. Methods From January 1993 through February 2015, we performed MV replacement and septal myectomy in 12 patients with mitral stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy at Mayo Clinic Hospital in Rochester, Minn. Preoperative data, echocardiographic images, operative records, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. Results Mean (standard deviation) age was 70 (7.6) years. Preoperative mean (standard deviation) maximal LVOT pressure gradient was 75.0 (35.0) mm Hg; MV gradient was 13.7 (2.8) mm Hg. From echocardiographic images, 4 mechanisms of outflow tract obstruction were identified: systolic anterior motion without severe limitation in MV leaflet excursion, severe limitation in MV leaflet mobility with systolic anterior motion at the tip of the MV anterior leaflet, septal encroachment toward the LVOT, and MV displacement toward the LVOT by calcification. Mitral valve replacement and extended septal myectomy relieved outflow gradients in all patients, with no death or serious morbidity. Conclusions Patients with mitral stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have multiple LVOT obstruction mechanisms, and MV replacement may not be adequate treatment. We favor septal myectomy and MV replacement in this complex subset of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- mitral stenosis
- mitral valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine