Mexiletine Shortens the QT Interval in Patients With Potassium Channel-Mediated Type 2 Long QT Syndrome

J. Martijn Bos, Lia Crotti, Ram K. Rohatgi, Silvia Castelletti, Federica Dagradi, Peter J. Schwartz, Michael John Ackerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. Although β-blocker therapy is standard for most patients, concomitant therapy with sodium channel blockers, like mexiletine, is often utilized for patients with sodium channel-mediated type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3). The potential role of sodium channel blockers in patients with potassium channel-mediated long QT syndrome (ie, LQT1 and LQT2) has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on 12 patients (5 females; median age at diagnosis 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7-23; range, 0-59, median heart rate-corrected QT interval [QTc] at diagnosis 557 ms (IQR, 529-605) with genetically established LQT2 (10) or a combination of LQT1/LQT2 (1) or LQT2/LQT3 (1), who received mexiletine. Data were collected on symptomatic status, treatments, and breakthrough cardiac events after diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Additionally, 12-lead ECGs were collected at diagnosis, before initiation of mexiletine and following mexiletine to evaluate the drug's effect on QTc. RESULTS: Before diagnosis, 6 patients were symptomatic and, before initiation of mexiletine, 4 patients experienced ≥1 breakthrough cardiac event on β-blocker. Median age at first mexiletine dose was 24.3 years (IQR, 14-32.4). After mexiletine, the median QTc decreased by 65±45 ms from 547 ms (IQR, 488-558) premexiletine to 470 ms (IQR, 409-529) postmexiletine ( P=0.0005) for all patients. In 8 patients (67%), the QTc decreased by ≥ 40 ms with a mean decrease in QTc of 91 ms ( P < 0.008). For the 11 patients maintained on mexiletine therapy, there have been no breakthrough cardiac events during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although commonly prescribed in patients with LQT3, mexiletine also shortens the QTc significantly in two-thirds of a small subset of patients with potassium channel-mediated LQT2. In patients with LQT2, pharmacological targeting of the physiological late sodium current may provide added therapeutic efficacy to β-blocker therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e007280
JournalCirculation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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Mexiletine
Long QT Syndrome
Potassium Channels
Sodium Channel Blockers
Therapeutics
Channelopathies
Sodium Channels

Keywords

  • blockers
  • long QT syndrome
  • mexiletine
  • potassium channels
  • sodium channel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Mexiletine Shortens the QT Interval in Patients With Potassium Channel-Mediated Type 2 Long QT Syndrome. / Bos, J. Martijn; Crotti, Lia; Rohatgi, Ram K.; Castelletti, Silvia; Dagradi, Federica; Schwartz, Peter J.; Ackerman, Michael John.

In: Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology, Vol. 12, No. 5, 01.05.2019, p. e007280.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bos, J. Martijn ; Crotti, Lia ; Rohatgi, Ram K. ; Castelletti, Silvia ; Dagradi, Federica ; Schwartz, Peter J. ; Ackerman, Michael John. / Mexiletine Shortens the QT Interval in Patients With Potassium Channel-Mediated Type 2 Long QT Syndrome. In: Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 5. pp. e007280.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. Although β-blocker therapy is standard for most patients, concomitant therapy with sodium channel blockers, like mexiletine, is often utilized for patients with sodium channel-mediated type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3). The potential role of sodium channel blockers in patients with potassium channel-mediated long QT syndrome (ie, LQT1 and LQT2) has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on 12 patients (5 females; median age at diagnosis 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7-23; range, 0-59, median heart rate-corrected QT interval [QTc] at diagnosis 557 ms (IQR, 529-605) with genetically established LQT2 (10) or a combination of LQT1/LQT2 (1) or LQT2/LQT3 (1), who received mexiletine. Data were collected on symptomatic status, treatments, and breakthrough cardiac events after diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Additionally, 12-lead ECGs were collected at diagnosis, before initiation of mexiletine and following mexiletine to evaluate the drug's effect on QTc. RESULTS: Before diagnosis, 6 patients were symptomatic and, before initiation of mexiletine, 4 patients experienced ≥1 breakthrough cardiac event on β-blocker. Median age at first mexiletine dose was 24.3 years (IQR, 14-32.4). After mexiletine, the median QTc decreased by 65±45 ms from 547 ms (IQR, 488-558) premexiletine to 470 ms (IQR, 409-529) postmexiletine ( P=0.0005) for all patients. In 8 patients (67{\%}), the QTc decreased by ≥ 40 ms with a mean decrease in QTc of 91 ms ( P < 0.008). For the 11 patients maintained on mexiletine therapy, there have been no breakthrough cardiac events during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although commonly prescribed in patients with LQT3, mexiletine also shortens the QTc significantly in two-thirds of a small subset of patients with potassium channel-mediated LQT2. In patients with LQT2, pharmacological targeting of the physiological late sodium current may provide added therapeutic efficacy to β-blocker therapy.",
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T1 - Mexiletine Shortens the QT Interval in Patients With Potassium Channel-Mediated Type 2 Long QT Syndrome

AU - Bos, J. Martijn

AU - Crotti, Lia

AU - Rohatgi, Ram K.

AU - Castelletti, Silvia

AU - Dagradi, Federica

AU - Schwartz, Peter J.

AU - Ackerman, Michael John

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. Although β-blocker therapy is standard for most patients, concomitant therapy with sodium channel blockers, like mexiletine, is often utilized for patients with sodium channel-mediated type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3). The potential role of sodium channel blockers in patients with potassium channel-mediated long QT syndrome (ie, LQT1 and LQT2) has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on 12 patients (5 females; median age at diagnosis 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7-23; range, 0-59, median heart rate-corrected QT interval [QTc] at diagnosis 557 ms (IQR, 529-605) with genetically established LQT2 (10) or a combination of LQT1/LQT2 (1) or LQT2/LQT3 (1), who received mexiletine. Data were collected on symptomatic status, treatments, and breakthrough cardiac events after diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Additionally, 12-lead ECGs were collected at diagnosis, before initiation of mexiletine and following mexiletine to evaluate the drug's effect on QTc. RESULTS: Before diagnosis, 6 patients were symptomatic and, before initiation of mexiletine, 4 patients experienced ≥1 breakthrough cardiac event on β-blocker. Median age at first mexiletine dose was 24.3 years (IQR, 14-32.4). After mexiletine, the median QTc decreased by 65±45 ms from 547 ms (IQR, 488-558) premexiletine to 470 ms (IQR, 409-529) postmexiletine ( P=0.0005) for all patients. In 8 patients (67%), the QTc decreased by ≥ 40 ms with a mean decrease in QTc of 91 ms ( P < 0.008). For the 11 patients maintained on mexiletine therapy, there have been no breakthrough cardiac events during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although commonly prescribed in patients with LQT3, mexiletine also shortens the QTc significantly in two-thirds of a small subset of patients with potassium channel-mediated LQT2. In patients with LQT2, pharmacological targeting of the physiological late sodium current may provide added therapeutic efficacy to β-blocker therapy.

AB - BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. Although β-blocker therapy is standard for most patients, concomitant therapy with sodium channel blockers, like mexiletine, is often utilized for patients with sodium channel-mediated type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3). The potential role of sodium channel blockers in patients with potassium channel-mediated long QT syndrome (ie, LQT1 and LQT2) has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on 12 patients (5 females; median age at diagnosis 14.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.7-23; range, 0-59, median heart rate-corrected QT interval [QTc] at diagnosis 557 ms (IQR, 529-605) with genetically established LQT2 (10) or a combination of LQT1/LQT2 (1) or LQT2/LQT3 (1), who received mexiletine. Data were collected on symptomatic status, treatments, and breakthrough cardiac events after diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Additionally, 12-lead ECGs were collected at diagnosis, before initiation of mexiletine and following mexiletine to evaluate the drug's effect on QTc. RESULTS: Before diagnosis, 6 patients were symptomatic and, before initiation of mexiletine, 4 patients experienced ≥1 breakthrough cardiac event on β-blocker. Median age at first mexiletine dose was 24.3 years (IQR, 14-32.4). After mexiletine, the median QTc decreased by 65±45 ms from 547 ms (IQR, 488-558) premexiletine to 470 ms (IQR, 409-529) postmexiletine ( P=0.0005) for all patients. In 8 patients (67%), the QTc decreased by ≥ 40 ms with a mean decrease in QTc of 91 ms ( P < 0.008). For the 11 patients maintained on mexiletine therapy, there have been no breakthrough cardiac events during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although commonly prescribed in patients with LQT3, mexiletine also shortens the QTc significantly in two-thirds of a small subset of patients with potassium channel-mediated LQT2. In patients with LQT2, pharmacological targeting of the physiological late sodium current may provide added therapeutic efficacy to β-blocker therapy.

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