Methylphenidate

Established and Expanding Roles in Symptom Management

Eric Prommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant originally used for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder. Methylphenidate inhibits neuronal neurotransmitter transporters involved in the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine at the level of the synapse. Inhibition of these transmitter transporters leads to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the synapse, which results in increasing alertness. The stimulant effect of methylphenidate has been used for the treatment of major depression, poststroke depression, cognitive enhancement in patients with brain tumors, neurodegenerative disorders, HIV disease, fatigue, and as a treatment for delirium and sedation associated with opioid use. Other areas where methylphenidate has been evaluated include gait disorders in the elderly individuals and the treatment of apathy in dementia. Analgesic effects have been demonstrated in preclinical models but true analgesic effects remain to be proven in humans. This article reviews the current use of methylphenidate for symptom management with a critical look at the evidence base for its efficacy in the conditions described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-490
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
Volume29
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Methylphenidate
Synapses
Analgesics
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins
Depression
Apathy
Delirium
Therapeutics
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Gait
Brain Neoplasms
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Opioid Analgesics
Fatigue
Dementia
HIV

Keywords

  • dopamine
  • fatigue
  • methylphenidate
  • opioid
  • psychostimulants
  • sedation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Methylphenidate : Established and Expanding Roles in Symptom Management. / Prommer, Eric.

In: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 6, 06.2012, p. 483-490.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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