Surgical trainees undergo demanding training to achieve high surgical task proficiency. Abounding clinical and educational responsibilities mandate efficient and effective training. This research measured resident workload during laparoscopic skills training to identify excessive workload and how workload impacted task performance. Twenty-eight surgical trainees performed a standardized surgical training task and completed a workload questionnaire while observers measured physiological stress, posture risk assessment, and task performance. Participants self-reported mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. Effort (12±4) and frustration (12±5) were the highest subscales while physical demand (8±4) was the lowest. All participants were observed performing the task in at-risk postures, with 21% exhibiting risk levels requiring immediate intervention. Physical demand was associated with posture risk assessment scores (p<0.05). Mental demand was positively (R2=0.20, p<0.05) and frustration was negatively (R2=0.18, p<0.05) associated with skin conductance range. A point increase in physical demand was associated with a six second increase in performance time (β=6.0, p=0.01). These results support the fact that human factors and ergonomic tools can be used to relate surgical skills performance with workload, stress, and posture risks.