Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to monoclonal gammopathy

Sanjeev Sethi, Ladan Zand, Nelson Leung, Richard J.H. Smith, Dragan Jevremonic, Sandra S. Herrmann, Fernando C. Fervenza

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis characterized by subendothelial and mesangial deposition of immune complexes. Autoimmune diseases and chronic infections, such as hepatitis C, are commonly recognized causes of MPGN; however, monoclonal gammopathy is a less widely recognized cause of MPGN. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We reviewed all renal biopsies of MPGN in Mayo Clinic patients during a 6-year period to determine the association of monoclonal gammopathy with MPGN. Results were correlated with electrophoresis studies and bone marrow biopsies to clarify the relationship between MPGN and gammopathies. Results: Of 126 patients with MPGN, 20 did not have workup for hepatitis B or C. Of the remaining 106 patients, 25 (23.5%) were positive for hepatitis B or C. Of the 81 hepatitis-negative patients, 13 were not evaluated for gammopathies. Of the remaining 68 patients, 28 (41.1%) had serum and/or urine electrophoresis studies positive for monoclonal gammopathy. Serum immunofixation electrophoresis was the most sensitive method for diagnosing monoclonal gammopathy. Renal biopsy showed a membranoproliferative pattern of injury; immunofluorescence microscopy was often instrumental in diagnosing the underlying gammopathy. On the basis of the bone marrow biopsy, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was the most common entity associated with MPGN. Other, less common causes included multiple myeloma, low-grade B cell lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions: Monoclonal gammopathy is an important and common cause of MPGN; therefore, all patients with a diagnosis of MPGN should be evaluated for an underlying monoclonal gammopathy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)770-782
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume5
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2010

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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