Medium- and high-intensity rTMS reduces psychomotor agitation with distinct neurobiologic mechanisms

Alesha Heath, Daniel R. Lindberg, Kalina Makowiecki, Avalon Gray, Anders J. Asp, Jennifer Rodger, Doo Sup Choi, Paul E. Croarkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Definitive data are lacking on the mechanism of action and biomarkers of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression. Low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) has demonstrated utility in preclinical models of rTMS treatments but the effects of LI-rTMS in murine models of depression are unknown. We examined the behavioral and neurobiologic changes in olfactory bulbectomy (OB) mice with medium-intensity rTMS (MI-rTMS) treatment and fluoxetine hydrochloride. We then compared 10-Hz rTMS sessions for 3 min at intensities (measured at the cortical surface) of 4 mT (LI-rTMS), 50 mT (medium-intensity rTMS [MI-rTMS]), or 1 T (high-intensity rTMS [HI-rTMS]) 5 days per week over 4 weeks in an OB model of agitated depression. Behavioral effects were assessed with forced swim test; neurobiologic effects were assessed with brain levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurogenesis. Peripheral metabolomic changes induced by OB and rTMS were monitored through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultrapressure liquid chromatography-driven targeted metabolomics evaluated with ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). MI-rTMS and HI-rTMS attenuated psychomotor agitation but only MI-rTMS increased BDNF and neurogenesis levels. HI-rTMS normalized the plasma concentration of α-amino-n-butyric acid and 3-methylhistidine. IPA revealed significant changes in glutamine processing and glutamate signaling in the OB model and following MI-rTMS and HI-rTMS treatment. The present findings suggest that MI-rTMS and HI-rTMS induce differential neurobiologic changes in a mouse model of agitated depression. Further, α-amino-n-butyric acid and 3-methylhistidine may have utility as biomarkers to objectively monitor the response to rTMS treatment of depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number129
JournalTranslational psychiatry
Volume8
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry

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