Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a slowly progressive disorder that is typically silent until late stages, but early intervention can significantly delay its progression. We designed a portable and scalable electronic CKD phenotype to facilitate early disease recognition and empower large-scale observational and genetic studies of kidney traits. The algorithm uses a combination of rule-based and machine-learning methods to automatically place patients on the staging grid of albuminuria by glomerular filtration rate (“A-by-G” grid). We manually validated the algorithm by 451 chart reviews across three medical systems, demonstrating overall positive predictive value of 95% for CKD cases and 97% for healthy controls. Independent case-control validation using 2350 patient records demonstrated diagnostic specificity of 97% and sensitivity of 87%. Application of the phenotype to 1.3 million patients demonstrated that over 80% of CKD cases are undetected using ICD codes alone. We also demonstrated several large-scale applications of the phenotype, including identifying stage-specific kidney disease comorbidities, in silico estimation of kidney trait heritability in thousands of pedigrees reconstructed from medical records, and biobank-based multicenter genome-wide and phenome-wide association studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Computer Science Applications
- Health Informatics
- Health Information Management