Lung transplantation has evolved as a viable therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Improvements in surgical techniques, avoidance of rejection by effective strategies of immunosuppression, and other aspects of medical management allow successful lung transplantation, with 1-year survivorship of 70 to 93%. In this review, we address the medical management of patients who have undergone lung transplantation. The immunosuppressive protocol used at Mayo Clinic Rochester is presented, along with a discussion of the mechanisms of action and potential complications associated with the various drugs used. The recognition and treatment of early graft dysfunction, infection, rejection, stenosis of the airway anastomosis, and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder are also reviewed. Careful surveillance of patients after lung transplantation helps maintain graft function and facilitates identification, treatment, and potential avoidance of complications.
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