Each year, approximately 30 to 40 million Americans travel outside the United States. Although the most popular destinations are Europe, Central America, and the Caribbean, travel to Africa and Asia is increasing substantially. International travel, particularly to developing countries, can be associated with the risk of infectious and noninfectious diseases. These risks can be decreased, eliminated, or modified with vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and education. Optimally, pretravel advice must be individualized to a person's medical history, itinerary, and risk behavior. In addition to risk assessment-based immunizations, issues such as traveler's diarrhea, malaria prophylaxis, sexually transmitted diseases, and management of underlying medical problems must form a part of pretravel management. Adventure or prolonged travel or persons with underlying medical diseases such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, transplantation, immunodeficiencies, and dialysis warrant additional preventive measures. This review primarily updates pretravel management of adults.
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