Mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic synergy of insulin and luteinizing hormone in porcine granulosa cells

Joint amplification of pivotal sterol-regulatory genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme

N. Sekar, James C. Garmey, Johannes D Veldhuis

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58 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growth of ovarian Graafian follicles and cytodifferentiation of granulosa and theca cells are regulated by gonadotropins, sex steroids and peptidyl growth factors. For example insulin and intraovarian insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) may amplify the actions of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in promoting biochemical luteinization and enhancing steroidogenesis. To explore further the notion of interactions between insulinomimetic peptides and LH and to examine the associated mechanisms, we have established porcine granulosa cells in monolayer culture for 48 h in 3% serum with insulin (1 μg/ml), estradiol (0.5 μg/ml), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 ng/ml) to allow cell anchorage, facilitate in vitro cytodifferentiation and confer LH responsiveness. To limit any carry-over effects of serum, granulosa cells were stabilized overnight in serum-free medium. Studies were then initiated to assess the impact of insulin on the dose-responsive actions of LH. A maximally effective concentration of insulin (1 μg/ml) synergistically augmented LH's dose-dependent ampilification of progesterone and cAMP accumulation; viz. by ≃twofold (progesterone) and ≃2.5-fold (cAMP) above that observed in maximally LH-stimulated cultures (P < 0.001). Mechanistically, insulin significantly enhanced the sensitivity of granulosa cells to LH's drive of cAMP accumulation [ED 50 for LH 61 ± 14 ng/ml (control) vs. 10 ± 1.0 ng/ml (insulin) (P < 0.01)]. Insulin also augmented the maximal stimulatory effect of LH; i.e. LH efficacy rose from 6.5 ± 0.4 to 17 ± 1.4 (pmole cAMP/μg DNA/48 h; P < 0.001). Insulin dose-response analysis showed that insulin alone minimally elevated basal, but significantly heightened LH's stimulation of progesterone and cAMP accumulation at (insulin) concentrations as low as 3-10 ng/ml. The molecular mechanisms underlying insulin and LH's synergy were assessed by RNase protection assays with (porcine) cRNA probes encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR), P450 cholesterol sidechain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and (as a possible negative control) Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP-2) [data normalized to constitutive 18S rRNA]. Non linear least-squares analysis was applied to confirm or refute an hypothesis of interactive synergy between LH and insulin on gene expression. LH and insulin alone exerted no effect on StAR message accumulation, and LH alone minimally stimulated P450scc and LDL-R mRNA's accumulation at 48 h. In contrast, insulin in combination with LH augmented StAR mRNA concentrations by ≃5-10-fold and stimulated LDL-R message levels by threefold above the respective maximally LH-driven values (P < 0.01). Maximal P450scc mRNA expression was enhanced twofold by cotreatment with LH and insulin compared with maximal LH-treated cultures. In contrast SCP-2 mRNA accumulation remained unaffected by any treatment. In summary, we have used a serum-free, in vitro differentiated porcine granulosa cell culture system to assess regulatory interactions between the disparate first messengers, LH and insulin. We observe marked LH-insulin steroidogenic synergy after 48 h of joint hormonal stimulation, and further clarify that the mechanism(s) of synergy include augmentation of cAMP production and increased steady-state concentrations of transcripts of key sterol-regulatory genes; namely, LDL-R, StAR, and P450scc, but not SCP-2. Since the encoded products of these genes variously control sterol substrate uptake, delivery to and utilization in mitochondrial steroidogenesis, we speculate that the concerted actions of insulin-like peptides and LH may contribute to steroidogenic differentiation during the later stages of follicular maturation and the granulosa-luteal cell transition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Volume159
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 25 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Gene encoding
LDL Receptors
Granulosa Cells
Sterols
Regulator Genes
Luteinizing Hormone
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Amplification
Swine
Joints
Insulin
Enzymes
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LDL Lipoproteins
Progesterone
steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
Messenger RNA
Ovarian Follicle
Peptide Hormones
Genes

Keywords

  • Cytochrome P450scc
  • Gonadotropin
  • LDL-R
  • Ovary
  • StAR
  • Trophic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

@article{6a6303373c2b406a9881ca518420e7a7,
title = "Mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic synergy of insulin and luteinizing hormone in porcine granulosa cells: Joint amplification of pivotal sterol-regulatory genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme",
abstract = "Growth of ovarian Graafian follicles and cytodifferentiation of granulosa and theca cells are regulated by gonadotropins, sex steroids and peptidyl growth factors. For example insulin and intraovarian insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) may amplify the actions of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in promoting biochemical luteinization and enhancing steroidogenesis. To explore further the notion of interactions between insulinomimetic peptides and LH and to examine the associated mechanisms, we have established porcine granulosa cells in monolayer culture for 48 h in 3{\%} serum with insulin (1 μg/ml), estradiol (0.5 μg/ml), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 ng/ml) to allow cell anchorage, facilitate in vitro cytodifferentiation and confer LH responsiveness. To limit any carry-over effects of serum, granulosa cells were stabilized overnight in serum-free medium. Studies were then initiated to assess the impact of insulin on the dose-responsive actions of LH. A maximally effective concentration of insulin (1 μg/ml) synergistically augmented LH's dose-dependent ampilification of progesterone and cAMP accumulation; viz. by ≃twofold (progesterone) and ≃2.5-fold (cAMP) above that observed in maximally LH-stimulated cultures (P < 0.001). Mechanistically, insulin significantly enhanced the sensitivity of granulosa cells to LH's drive of cAMP accumulation [ED 50 for LH 61 ± 14 ng/ml (control) vs. 10 ± 1.0 ng/ml (insulin) (P < 0.01)]. Insulin also augmented the maximal stimulatory effect of LH; i.e. LH efficacy rose from 6.5 ± 0.4 to 17 ± 1.4 (pmole cAMP/μg DNA/48 h; P < 0.001). Insulin dose-response analysis showed that insulin alone minimally elevated basal, but significantly heightened LH's stimulation of progesterone and cAMP accumulation at (insulin) concentrations as low as 3-10 ng/ml. The molecular mechanisms underlying insulin and LH's synergy were assessed by RNase protection assays with (porcine) cRNA probes encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR), P450 cholesterol sidechain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and (as a possible negative control) Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP-2) [data normalized to constitutive 18S rRNA]. Non linear least-squares analysis was applied to confirm or refute an hypothesis of interactive synergy between LH and insulin on gene expression. LH and insulin alone exerted no effect on StAR message accumulation, and LH alone minimally stimulated P450scc and LDL-R mRNA's accumulation at 48 h. In contrast, insulin in combination with LH augmented StAR mRNA concentrations by ≃5-10-fold and stimulated LDL-R message levels by threefold above the respective maximally LH-driven values (P < 0.01). Maximal P450scc mRNA expression was enhanced twofold by cotreatment with LH and insulin compared with maximal LH-treated cultures. In contrast SCP-2 mRNA accumulation remained unaffected by any treatment. In summary, we have used a serum-free, in vitro differentiated porcine granulosa cell culture system to assess regulatory interactions between the disparate first messengers, LH and insulin. We observe marked LH-insulin steroidogenic synergy after 48 h of joint hormonal stimulation, and further clarify that the mechanism(s) of synergy include augmentation of cAMP production and increased steady-state concentrations of transcripts of key sterol-regulatory genes; namely, LDL-R, StAR, and P450scc, but not SCP-2. Since the encoded products of these genes variously control sterol substrate uptake, delivery to and utilization in mitochondrial steroidogenesis, we speculate that the concerted actions of insulin-like peptides and LH may contribute to steroidogenic differentiation during the later stages of follicular maturation and the granulosa-luteal cell transition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.",
keywords = "Cytochrome P450scc, Gonadotropin, LDL-R, Ovary, StAR, Trophic",
author = "N. Sekar and Garmey, {James C.} and Veldhuis, {Johannes D}",
year = "2000",
month = "1",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1016/S0303-7207(99)00203-8",
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volume = "159",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic synergy of insulin and luteinizing hormone in porcine granulosa cells

T2 - Joint amplification of pivotal sterol-regulatory genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme

AU - Sekar, N.

AU - Garmey, James C.

AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D

PY - 2000/1/25

Y1 - 2000/1/25

N2 - Growth of ovarian Graafian follicles and cytodifferentiation of granulosa and theca cells are regulated by gonadotropins, sex steroids and peptidyl growth factors. For example insulin and intraovarian insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) may amplify the actions of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in promoting biochemical luteinization and enhancing steroidogenesis. To explore further the notion of interactions between insulinomimetic peptides and LH and to examine the associated mechanisms, we have established porcine granulosa cells in monolayer culture for 48 h in 3% serum with insulin (1 μg/ml), estradiol (0.5 μg/ml), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 ng/ml) to allow cell anchorage, facilitate in vitro cytodifferentiation and confer LH responsiveness. To limit any carry-over effects of serum, granulosa cells were stabilized overnight in serum-free medium. Studies were then initiated to assess the impact of insulin on the dose-responsive actions of LH. A maximally effective concentration of insulin (1 μg/ml) synergistically augmented LH's dose-dependent ampilification of progesterone and cAMP accumulation; viz. by ≃twofold (progesterone) and ≃2.5-fold (cAMP) above that observed in maximally LH-stimulated cultures (P < 0.001). Mechanistically, insulin significantly enhanced the sensitivity of granulosa cells to LH's drive of cAMP accumulation [ED 50 for LH 61 ± 14 ng/ml (control) vs. 10 ± 1.0 ng/ml (insulin) (P < 0.01)]. Insulin also augmented the maximal stimulatory effect of LH; i.e. LH efficacy rose from 6.5 ± 0.4 to 17 ± 1.4 (pmole cAMP/μg DNA/48 h; P < 0.001). Insulin dose-response analysis showed that insulin alone minimally elevated basal, but significantly heightened LH's stimulation of progesterone and cAMP accumulation at (insulin) concentrations as low as 3-10 ng/ml. The molecular mechanisms underlying insulin and LH's synergy were assessed by RNase protection assays with (porcine) cRNA probes encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR), P450 cholesterol sidechain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and (as a possible negative control) Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP-2) [data normalized to constitutive 18S rRNA]. Non linear least-squares analysis was applied to confirm or refute an hypothesis of interactive synergy between LH and insulin on gene expression. LH and insulin alone exerted no effect on StAR message accumulation, and LH alone minimally stimulated P450scc and LDL-R mRNA's accumulation at 48 h. In contrast, insulin in combination with LH augmented StAR mRNA concentrations by ≃5-10-fold and stimulated LDL-R message levels by threefold above the respective maximally LH-driven values (P < 0.01). Maximal P450scc mRNA expression was enhanced twofold by cotreatment with LH and insulin compared with maximal LH-treated cultures. In contrast SCP-2 mRNA accumulation remained unaffected by any treatment. In summary, we have used a serum-free, in vitro differentiated porcine granulosa cell culture system to assess regulatory interactions between the disparate first messengers, LH and insulin. We observe marked LH-insulin steroidogenic synergy after 48 h of joint hormonal stimulation, and further clarify that the mechanism(s) of synergy include augmentation of cAMP production and increased steady-state concentrations of transcripts of key sterol-regulatory genes; namely, LDL-R, StAR, and P450scc, but not SCP-2. Since the encoded products of these genes variously control sterol substrate uptake, delivery to and utilization in mitochondrial steroidogenesis, we speculate that the concerted actions of insulin-like peptides and LH may contribute to steroidogenic differentiation during the later stages of follicular maturation and the granulosa-luteal cell transition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

AB - Growth of ovarian Graafian follicles and cytodifferentiation of granulosa and theca cells are regulated by gonadotropins, sex steroids and peptidyl growth factors. For example insulin and intraovarian insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) may amplify the actions of both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in promoting biochemical luteinization and enhancing steroidogenesis. To explore further the notion of interactions between insulinomimetic peptides and LH and to examine the associated mechanisms, we have established porcine granulosa cells in monolayer culture for 48 h in 3% serum with insulin (1 μg/ml), estradiol (0.5 μg/ml), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 ng/ml) to allow cell anchorage, facilitate in vitro cytodifferentiation and confer LH responsiveness. To limit any carry-over effects of serum, granulosa cells were stabilized overnight in serum-free medium. Studies were then initiated to assess the impact of insulin on the dose-responsive actions of LH. A maximally effective concentration of insulin (1 μg/ml) synergistically augmented LH's dose-dependent ampilification of progesterone and cAMP accumulation; viz. by ≃twofold (progesterone) and ≃2.5-fold (cAMP) above that observed in maximally LH-stimulated cultures (P < 0.001). Mechanistically, insulin significantly enhanced the sensitivity of granulosa cells to LH's drive of cAMP accumulation [ED 50 for LH 61 ± 14 ng/ml (control) vs. 10 ± 1.0 ng/ml (insulin) (P < 0.01)]. Insulin also augmented the maximal stimulatory effect of LH; i.e. LH efficacy rose from 6.5 ± 0.4 to 17 ± 1.4 (pmole cAMP/μg DNA/48 h; P < 0.001). Insulin dose-response analysis showed that insulin alone minimally elevated basal, but significantly heightened LH's stimulation of progesterone and cAMP accumulation at (insulin) concentrations as low as 3-10 ng/ml. The molecular mechanisms underlying insulin and LH's synergy were assessed by RNase protection assays with (porcine) cRNA probes encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein (StAR), P450 cholesterol sidechain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and (as a possible negative control) Sterol Carrier Protein 2 (SCP-2) [data normalized to constitutive 18S rRNA]. Non linear least-squares analysis was applied to confirm or refute an hypothesis of interactive synergy between LH and insulin on gene expression. LH and insulin alone exerted no effect on StAR message accumulation, and LH alone minimally stimulated P450scc and LDL-R mRNA's accumulation at 48 h. In contrast, insulin in combination with LH augmented StAR mRNA concentrations by ≃5-10-fold and stimulated LDL-R message levels by threefold above the respective maximally LH-driven values (P < 0.01). Maximal P450scc mRNA expression was enhanced twofold by cotreatment with LH and insulin compared with maximal LH-treated cultures. In contrast SCP-2 mRNA accumulation remained unaffected by any treatment. In summary, we have used a serum-free, in vitro differentiated porcine granulosa cell culture system to assess regulatory interactions between the disparate first messengers, LH and insulin. We observe marked LH-insulin steroidogenic synergy after 48 h of joint hormonal stimulation, and further clarify that the mechanism(s) of synergy include augmentation of cAMP production and increased steady-state concentrations of transcripts of key sterol-regulatory genes; namely, LDL-R, StAR, and P450scc, but not SCP-2. Since the encoded products of these genes variously control sterol substrate uptake, delivery to and utilization in mitochondrial steroidogenesis, we speculate that the concerted actions of insulin-like peptides and LH may contribute to steroidogenic differentiation during the later stages of follicular maturation and the granulosa-luteal cell transition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

KW - Cytochrome P450scc

KW - Gonadotropin

KW - LDL-R

KW - Ovary

KW - StAR

KW - Trophic

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U2 - 10.1016/S0303-7207(99)00203-8

DO - 10.1016/S0303-7207(99)00203-8

M3 - Article

VL - 159

SP - 25

EP - 35

JO - Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

JF - Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

SN - 0303-7207

IS - 1-2

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