Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of isolated impaired glucose tolerance in humans

Ron T. Varghese, Chiara Dalla Man, Anu Sharma, Ivan Viegas, Cristina Barosa, Catia Marques, Meera Shah, John M. Miles, Robert A. Rizza, John G. Jones, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella

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Abstract

Context: Prediabetes is a heterogeneous disorder classified on the basis of fasting glucose concentrations and 2-hour glucose tolerance. Objective:Wesought to determine the relative contributions of insulin secretion and action to the pathogenesis of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Design: The study consisted of an oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic clamp performed in two cohorts matched for anthropometric characteristics and fasting glucose but discordant for glucose tolerance. Setting: An inpatient clinical research unit at an academic medical center. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five subjects who had normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 19 NFG/IGT subjects participated in this study. Intervention(s): Subjects underwent a seven-sample oral glucose tolerance test and a 4-hour euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp on separate occasions. Glucose turnover during the clamp was measured using tracers, and endogenous hormone secretion was inhibited by somatostatin. Main Outcome Measures: We sought to determine whether hepatic glucose metabolism, specifically the contribution of gluconeogenesis to endogenous glucose production, differed between subjects with NFG/NGT and those with NFG/IGT. Results: Endogenous glucose production did not differ between groups before or during the clamp. Insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance was lower in NFG/IGT (24.6 ± 2.2 vs 35.0 ± ± 3.6 ±mol/kg/min; P=.03). The disposition index was decreased in NFG/IGT (681±102 vs 2231±413± 10-14 dL/kg/min2 per pmol/L; P < .001). Conclusions: We conclude that innate defects in the regulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis do not contribute to NFG/IGT. However, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is impaired, exacerbating defects in β-cell function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4816-4824
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume101
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

Varghese, R. T., Man, C. D., Sharma, A., Viegas, I., Barosa, C., Marques, C., Shah, M., Miles, J. M., Rizza, R. A., Jones, J. G., Cobelli, C., & Vella, A. (2016). Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of isolated impaired glucose tolerance in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 101(12), 4816-4824. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-1998