Purpose: To validate a measure of reflection on participation in quality improvement (QI) activities and to identify associations with characteristics of QI projects, participants, and teams.
Method: This was a prospective validation study of all Mayo Clinic team participants who submitted QI projects for maintenance of certification (MOC) credit from 2010 to 2012. The authors developed a measure of reflection on participation in QI activities and explored associations between participants' overall reflection scores and characteristics of projects, participants, and teams.
Results: A total of 922 participants (567 physicians) on 118 teams completed QI projects and reflections. Factor analysis revealed a two-dimensional model with good internal consistency reliabilities (Cronbach alpha) for high (0.85) and low (0.81) reflection. Reflection scores (mean [standard deviation]) were associated with projects that changed practice (yes: 4.30 [0.51]; no: 3.71 [0.57]; P < .0001), changed the health care system (yes: 4.25 [0.54]; no: 4.03 [0.62]; P < .0001), and impacted patient safety (P < .0001). Physicians' reflection scores (4.27 [0.57]) were higher than support staff scores (4.07 [0.55]; P = .0005). A positive association existed between reflection scores and the number of QI roles per participant (P < .0001). There were no associations with participant gender, team size, or team diversity.b
Conclusions: The authors identified associations between participant reflection and the impact of QI projects, participants' professional roles, and participants' involvement with projects. With further study, the authors anticipate that the new measure of reflection will be useful for determining meaningful engagement in MOC.
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