Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important therapeutic target that can potentially attenuate the adverse ventricular remodeling seen in the progression of heart failure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade numerous ECM proteins. Importantly, the activation of MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) are associated with ventricular remodeling. Bioactive-molecules (vasoactive peptides) become activated in proportion to the magnitude of heart failure and have been demonstrated to affect directly collagen degradation as well as collagen synthesis in the myocardium. Pro-fibrotic factors such as norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 stimulate fibrosis by modulating collagen synthesis and MMP/TIMP activity. Antagonism of these bioactive-molecules has produced improved hemodynamic performance concomitant with modulation of MMP/TIMP activity and in association with reverse remodeling. The natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide, both of which function via the second messenger cGMP, demonstrate anti-fibiotic actions by inhibiting collagen synthesis and by stimulating MMP activity. Furthermore, bioactive-molecules along with certain cytokines are reported to amplify MMP activity, suggesting that different signaling systems work together to modulate ECM turnover. Taken together, the evidence supports an important functional role for bioactive-molecules in the regulation of ECM turnover and suggests that pharmacological intervention at the level of such bioactive molecules may provide potential therapeutic strategies for attenuation of the adverse ventricular remodeling associated with the progression of heart failure.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Heart Failure Reviews|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2004|
- Heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine