Syncope is a clinical syndrome characterized by transient loss of consciousness and postural tone that is most often due to temporary and spontaneously self-terminating global cerebral hypoperfusion. A common presenting problem to health care systems, the management of syncope imposes a considerable socioeconomic burden. Clinical guidelines, such as the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on Management of Syncope, have helped to streamline its management. In recent years, we have witnessed intensive efforts on many fronts to improve the evaluation process and to explore therapeutic options. For this update, we summarized recent active research in the following areas: the role of the syncope management unit and risk prediction rules in providing high-quality and cost-effective evaluation in the emergency department, the implementation of structured history taking and standardized guideline-based evaluation to improve diagnostic yield, the evolving role of the implantable loop recorder as a diagnostic test for unexplained syncope and for guiding management of neurally mediated syncope, and the shift toward nonpharmacological therapies as mainstay treatment for patients with neurally mediated syncope. Syncope is a multidisciplinary problem; future efforts to address critical issues, including the publication of clinical guidelines, should adopt a multidisciplinary approach.
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