Management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM)

Robert A. Kyle, Francis Buadi, S Vincent Rajkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is defined as a serum M protein level of less than 3 g/dL, less than 10% clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the absence of end-organ damage. The prevalence of MGUS is 3.2% in the white population but is approximately twice that high in the black population. MGUS may progress to multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or lymphoma. The risk of progression is approximately 1% per year, but the risk continues even after more than 25 years of observation. Risk factors for progression include the size of the serum M protein, the type of serum M protein, the number of plasma cells in the bone marrow, and the serum free light chain ratio. Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) is characterized by the presence of an M protein level of 3 g/dL or higher and/or 10% or more monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage. The overall risk of progression to a malignant condition is 10% per year for the first 5 years, approximately 3% per year for the next 5 years, and 1% to 2% per year for the following 10 years. Patients with both MGUS and SMM must be followed up for their lifetime.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOncology
Volume25
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2011

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Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance
Multiple Myeloma
Plasma Cells
Blood Proteins
Bone Marrow
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Amyloidosis
Population
Lymphoma
Observation
Light
Serum
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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Management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). / Kyle, Robert A.; Buadi, Francis; Rajkumar, S Vincent.

In: Oncology, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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