Management of abdominal aortic prosthetic graft and endograft infections. A multidisciplinary update

Roberta Maria Antonello, Mario D'Oria, Marco Cavallaro, Franca Dore, Maria Assunta Cova, Maria Chiara Ricciardi, Manola Comar, Giuseppina Campisciano, Sandro Lepidi, Randall R De Martino, Stefano Chiarandini, Roberto Luzzati, Stefano Di Bella

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Abdominal aortic graft infections (AGIs) occur in 1–5% of aortic prosthetic placements. It can result in limb amputation, pseudo-aneurysm formation, septic emboli, aorto-enteric fistulae, septic shock and death. The most frequently involved pathogens are methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Enterobacteriaceae and uncommon bacteria. In case of gut involvement the presence of fungi has to be considered. Computed tomography angiography is actually the gold standard diagnostic imaging but magnetic resonance is a valid alternative. Nuclear medicine imaging is commonly used to improve sensitivity and specificity. Signs and symptoms are often aspecific and blood cultures can be negative, requiring alternative ways to detect the microorganism responsible for infection, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and molecular rapid diagnostic tests. Curative surgical intervention is the first choice approach, with in-situ reconstruction providing by far the best outcome and xenopericardial bovine patch as a promising option. For patients unable to undergo major surgery, the outcome of conservative approach remains uncertain but usually provides for life-long suppressive therapy. However, in selected cases an attempt of stopping antibiotic treatment after 3–6 months can be done. Given the difficulty in their management, we performed a review of AGIs, in order to raise awareness on clinical presentation, current available diagnostic tools, prophylaxis, surgical and anti-infective treatment of AGIs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Abdominal
  • Aorta
  • Blood vessel prosthesis
  • Graft infection
  • Vascular diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Antonello, R. M., D'Oria, M., Cavallaro, M., Dore, F., Cova, M. A., Ricciardi, M. C., Comar, M., Campisciano, G., Lepidi, S., De Martino, R. R., Chiarandini, S., Luzzati, R., & Di Bella, S. (2019). Management of abdominal aortic prosthetic graft and endograft infections. A multidisciplinary update. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.05.013