Objective: To analyze clinical characteristics and survival of patients with primary vaginal cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with primary squamous, adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the vagina identified from the Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry between 1998 and 2018. Results: A total of 124 patients were identified: stage I, 39 patients; stage II, 44, stage III, 20 and stage IV, 21. Patients with stage III and IV were older as compared to stage I and II. (mean ages 61 vs 67) (p = 0.024). Squamous cell carcinoma made up 71% of tumors. History of other malignancy was present in 24% patients. Median follow-up time was 60 months (range 1–240). Five-year PFS in stage I, II, III and IV was 58.7%, 59.4%, 67.3% and 31.8%, respectively (p = 0.039). Five-year DSS was 84.3%, 73.7%, 78.7% and 26.5% respectively (p < 0.001). Advanced stage, tumor size >4 cm, entire vaginal involvement, and lymph node (LN) metastasis were poor prognosticators in univariate analysis. Primary surgery in stage I/II patients had similar survival outcomes as compared to primary radiation, but post-operative RT rate was 55%. Brachytherapy alone was associated with a high local recurrence (80%) in stage I/II patients. The addition of brachytherapy had improved 5-year PFS and DSS than EBRT alone in patients with stage III/IVA. (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Surgery or radiation is effective treatment for vaginal cancer stage I and II. The addition of brachytherapy to external pelvic radiation increases survival in stages III-IV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology