Tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) maintain tissue homeostasis, but they can also provide a replicative niche for intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. How dermal TRMs proliferate and maintain their M2 properties even in the strong TH1 environment of the L. major infected dermis is not clear. Here, we show that, in infected mice lacking IL-4/13 from eosinophils, dermal TRMs shifted to a proinflammatory state, their numbers declined, and disease was attenuated. Intravital microscopy revealed a rapid infiltration of eosinophils followed by their tight interaction with dermal TRMs. IL-4-stimulated dermal TRMs, in concert with IL-10, produced a large amount of CCL24, which functioned to amplify eosinophil influx and their interaction with dermal TRMs. An intraperitoneal helminth infection model also demonstrated a requirement for eosinophil-derived IL-4 to maintain tissue macrophages through a CCL24-mediated amplification loop. CCL24 secretion was confined to resident macrophages in other tissues, implicating eosinophil-TRM cooperative interactions in diverse inflammatory settings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy