Lysine 624 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a critical determinant of amyloid β peptide length: Support for a sequential model of γ-secretase intramembrane proteolysis and regulation by the amyloid β precursor protein (APP) juxtamembrane region

Thomas L. Kukar, Thomas B. Ladd, Paul Robertson, Sean A. Pintchovski, Brenda Moore, Maralyssa A. Bann, Zhao Ren, Karen Jansen-West, Kim Malphrus, Simone Eggert, Hiroko Maruyama, Barbara A. Cottrell, Pritam Das, Guriqbal S. Basi, Edward H. Koo, Todd E. Golde

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Abstract

γ-Secretase is a multiprotein intramembrane cleaving aspartyl protease (I-CLiP) that catalyzes the final cleavage of the amyloid β precursor protein (APP) to release the amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Aβ is the primary component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and its mechanism of production has been studied intensely. γ-Secretase executes multiple cleavages within the transmembrane domain of APP, with cleavages producing Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD), referred to as γ and ε, respectively. The heterogeneous nature of the γ cleavage that produces various Aβ peptides is highly relevant to AD, as increased production of Aβ 1-42 is genetically and biochemically linked to the development of AD. We have identified an amino acid in the juxta membrane region of APP, lysine 624, on the basis of APP695 numbering (position 28 relative to Aβ) that plays a critical role in determining the final length of Aβ peptides released by γ-secretase. Mutation of this lysine to alanine (K28A) shifts the primary site of γ-secretase cleavage from 1-40 to 1-33 without significant changes to ε cleavage. These results further support a model where ε cleavage occurs first, followed by sequential proteolysis of the remaining transmembrane fragment, but extend these observations by demonstrating that charged residues at the luminal boundary of the APP transmembrane domain limit processivity of γ-secretase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39804-39812
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume286
Issue number46
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 18 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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    Kukar, T. L., Ladd, T. B., Robertson, P., Pintchovski, S. A., Moore, B., Bann, M. A., Ren, Z., Jansen-West, K., Malphrus, K., Eggert, S., Maruyama, H., Cottrell, B. A., Das, P., Basi, G. S., Koo, E. H., & Golde, T. E. (2011). Lysine 624 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a critical determinant of amyloid β peptide length: Support for a sequential model of γ-secretase intramembrane proteolysis and regulation by the amyloid β precursor protein (APP) juxtamembrane region. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(46), 39804-39812. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.274696