Long-Term Survivorship of Total Hip Arthroplasty with Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene for Osteonecrosis

Adam Hart, Viktor Janz, Robert T. Trousdale, Rafael J. Sierra, Daniel J. Berry, Matthew Abdel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the hip is the underlying etiology for 3% to 12% of total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Compared with patients who undergo THA because of osteoarthritis, those who do so because of osteonecrosis typically are younger, have a greater number of underlying diagnoses, and have inferior clinical outcomes and implant survivorship. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term implant survivorship (median follow-up, 10 years), functional outcomes, and radiographic results of contemporary THAs with a highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner between patients with osteonecrosis and those with osteoarthritis. METHODS: All patients who underwent primary THA with an HXLPE liner from 1999 to 2007 were identified from our institutional total joint registry. Patients with a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis were matched 1:1, on the basis of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), to patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. This resulted in 461 hips in 413 patients with osteonecrosis matched to 461 hips in 427 patients with osteoarthritis (mean age, 59 years; 47% female; and mean BMI, 29 kg/m). Long-term implant survivorship, patient-reported outcomes, and radiographic findings were compared. In addition, a subgroup analysis of the osteonecrosis group was performed to see whether certain underlying etiologies portended poor outcomes. The median follow-up was 10 years. RESULTS: The 15-year cumulative rates of revision were 6.6% and 4.5% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8, p = 0.09). The 15-year cumulative rates of any reoperation were 10.5% and 6.4% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (HR = 2.2, p = 0.008). There were no radiographic signs of component loosening or osteolysis in the entire cohort. Despite a lower median preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) for patients with osteonecrosis, both groups had marked improvements in their scores, which were similar at all time points after surgery. The cumulative rate of reoperations at 15 years was 0% for hips with radiation-induced osteonecrosis, 6.3% for those with alcohol-induced osteonecrosis, 9.0% for those with posttraumatic osteonecrosis, 12.1% for those with steroid-induced osteonecrosis, and 25% for those with idiopathic osteonecrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary THA with an HXLPE liner offers excellent long-term implant survivorship and functional outcomes for patients with osteonecrosis; however, the risk of a reoperation is higher when compared with patients with osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1563-1568
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
Volume101
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 4 2019

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Osteonecrosis
Polyethylene
Arthroplasty
Hip
Survival Rate
Osteoarthritis
Reoperation
Body Mass Index
Osteolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Long-Term Survivorship of Total Hip Arthroplasty with Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene for Osteonecrosis. / Hart, Adam; Janz, Viktor; Trousdale, Robert T.; Sierra, Rafael J.; Berry, Daniel J.; Abdel, Matthew.

In: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume, Vol. 101, No. 17, 04.09.2019, p. 1563-1568.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hart, Adam ; Janz, Viktor ; Trousdale, Robert T. ; Sierra, Rafael J. ; Berry, Daniel J. ; Abdel, Matthew. / Long-Term Survivorship of Total Hip Arthroplasty with Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene for Osteonecrosis. In: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. 2019 ; Vol. 101, No. 17. pp. 1563-1568.
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AU - Janz, Viktor

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AU - Sierra, Rafael J.

AU - Berry, Daniel J.

AU - Abdel, Matthew

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the hip is the underlying etiology for 3% to 12% of total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Compared with patients who undergo THA because of osteoarthritis, those who do so because of osteonecrosis typically are younger, have a greater number of underlying diagnoses, and have inferior clinical outcomes and implant survivorship. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term implant survivorship (median follow-up, 10 years), functional outcomes, and radiographic results of contemporary THAs with a highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner between patients with osteonecrosis and those with osteoarthritis. METHODS: All patients who underwent primary THA with an HXLPE liner from 1999 to 2007 were identified from our institutional total joint registry. Patients with a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis were matched 1:1, on the basis of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), to patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. This resulted in 461 hips in 413 patients with osteonecrosis matched to 461 hips in 427 patients with osteoarthritis (mean age, 59 years; 47% female; and mean BMI, 29 kg/m). Long-term implant survivorship, patient-reported outcomes, and radiographic findings were compared. In addition, a subgroup analysis of the osteonecrosis group was performed to see whether certain underlying etiologies portended poor outcomes. The median follow-up was 10 years. RESULTS: The 15-year cumulative rates of revision were 6.6% and 4.5% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8, p = 0.09). The 15-year cumulative rates of any reoperation were 10.5% and 6.4% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (HR = 2.2, p = 0.008). There were no radiographic signs of component loosening or osteolysis in the entire cohort. Despite a lower median preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) for patients with osteonecrosis, both groups had marked improvements in their scores, which were similar at all time points after surgery. The cumulative rate of reoperations at 15 years was 0% for hips with radiation-induced osteonecrosis, 6.3% for those with alcohol-induced osteonecrosis, 9.0% for those with posttraumatic osteonecrosis, 12.1% for those with steroid-induced osteonecrosis, and 25% for those with idiopathic osteonecrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary THA with an HXLPE liner offers excellent long-term implant survivorship and functional outcomes for patients with osteonecrosis; however, the risk of a reoperation is higher when compared with patients with osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

AB - BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the hip is the underlying etiology for 3% to 12% of total hip arthroplasties (THAs). Compared with patients who undergo THA because of osteoarthritis, those who do so because of osteonecrosis typically are younger, have a greater number of underlying diagnoses, and have inferior clinical outcomes and implant survivorship. The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term implant survivorship (median follow-up, 10 years), functional outcomes, and radiographic results of contemporary THAs with a highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner between patients with osteonecrosis and those with osteoarthritis. METHODS: All patients who underwent primary THA with an HXLPE liner from 1999 to 2007 were identified from our institutional total joint registry. Patients with a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis were matched 1:1, on the basis of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), to patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. This resulted in 461 hips in 413 patients with osteonecrosis matched to 461 hips in 427 patients with osteoarthritis (mean age, 59 years; 47% female; and mean BMI, 29 kg/m). Long-term implant survivorship, patient-reported outcomes, and radiographic findings were compared. In addition, a subgroup analysis of the osteonecrosis group was performed to see whether certain underlying etiologies portended poor outcomes. The median follow-up was 10 years. RESULTS: The 15-year cumulative rates of revision were 6.6% and 4.5% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8, p = 0.09). The 15-year cumulative rates of any reoperation were 10.5% and 6.4% in the osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis groups, respectively (HR = 2.2, p = 0.008). There were no radiographic signs of component loosening or osteolysis in the entire cohort. Despite a lower median preoperative Harris hip score (HHS) for patients with osteonecrosis, both groups had marked improvements in their scores, which were similar at all time points after surgery. The cumulative rate of reoperations at 15 years was 0% for hips with radiation-induced osteonecrosis, 6.3% for those with alcohol-induced osteonecrosis, 9.0% for those with posttraumatic osteonecrosis, 12.1% for those with steroid-induced osteonecrosis, and 25% for those with idiopathic osteonecrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary THA with an HXLPE liner offers excellent long-term implant survivorship and functional outcomes for patients with osteonecrosis; however, the risk of a reoperation is higher when compared with patients with osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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