BACKGROUND: Experience with sequential hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and kidney transplant (KT) is limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients who underwent both HSCT and KT at our center, with a median follow-up of 11 y. RESULTS: In our 54 patients cohort (94% autologous HSCT), 36 (67%) patients received HSCT first followed by KT, while 18 (33%) received KT before HSCT. In both groups, AL amyloidosis represented 50% of hematologic diagnosis. Only 4 patients expired due to hematologic disease relapse (2 patients in each group) and only 3 allografts were lost due to hematologic disease recurrence (HSCT first n = 1 and KT first n = 2). Overall 1, 5, and 10 y death-censored graft survival rates were 94%, 94%, and 94%, respectively, for the HSCT first group and 89%, 89%, and 75%, respectively, for the KT first group. Overall 1, 5, and 10 y patients survival rates were 100%, 97% and 90%, respectively, for the HSCT first group and 100%, 76%, and 63%, respectively, for the KT first group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports safety of sequential KT and HSCT, with improved overall patient survival compared to recipients of HSCT remaining on dialysis and good long-term kidney allograft outcome.
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