Long-Term Outcomes of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy in the SCD-HeFT

SCD-HeFT Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: The SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial) randomized 2,521 patients with moderate heart failure (HF) to amiodarone, placebo drug, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Original trial follow-up ended October 31, 2003. Over a median 45.5-month follow-up, amiodarone, compared with placebo, did not affect survival, whereas randomization to an ICD significantly decreased all-cause mortality by 23%. Objectives: This study sought to describe the extended treatment group survival of the SCD-HeFT cohort. Methods: Mortality outcomes for the 1,855 patients alive at the end of the SCD-HeFT trial were collected between 2010 and 2011. These data were combined with the 666 deaths from the original study to compare long-term outcomes overall and for key pre-specified subgroups. Results: Median (25th to 75th percentiles) follow-up was 11.0 (10.0 to 12.2) years. On the basis of intention-to-treat analysis, the ICD group had overall survival benefit versus placebo drug (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.98; p = 0.028). When treatment benefit was examined as a function of time from randomization, attenuation of the ICD benefit was observed after 6 years (p value for the interaction = 0.0015). Subgroup analysis revealed long-term ICD benefit varied according to HF etiology and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: ischemic HF HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.95; p = 0.009; nonischemic HF HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.20; p = 0.802; NYHA functional class II HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.90; p = 0.001; NYHA functional class III HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.31; p = 0.575. Conclusions: Follow-up of SCD-HeFT patients to 11 years demonstrated heterogenous treatment-related patterns of long-term survival with ICD benefit most evident at 11 years for ischemic HF patients and for those with NYHA functional class II symptoms at trial enrollment. (SCD-HeFT 10 Year Follow-up [SCD-HeFT10 Yr]; NCT01058837)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-415
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 28 2020


  • heart failure
  • implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • sudden cardiac death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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