Objective: To examine the efficacy of counselor-assisted problem solving (CAPS) in improving long-term caregiver psychological functioning following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adolescents. Methods: This randomized clinical trial compared CAPS (n = 65), a predominantly online problem-solving intervention, with an Internet resource comparison (n = 67) program. Families of adolescents with TBI completed a baseline assessment and follow-up assessments 6, 12, and 18 months later. General linear mixed models were used to examine longitudinal changes in caregiver global psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and caregiving self-efficacy. Family income and injury severity were examined as moderators of treatment efficacy. Results: Family income moderated long-term changes in caregiver psychological distress. For lower-income caregivers, the CAPS intervention was associated with lower levels of psychological distress at 6, 12, and 18 months post baseline. Conclusions: These findings support the utility of Web-based interventions in improving long-term caregiver psychological distress, particularly for lower-income families.
- caregiver outcomes
- traumatic brain injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology