Background: Rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) have increased in the United States, with younger women with breast cancer the most likely to have CPM. Methods: As part of an ongoing cohort study of young women diagnosed with breast cancer at age ≤40 years, we conducted multinomial logistic regression of data from 560 women with unilateral Stage I–III disease to identify factors associated with: (1) CPM versus unilateral mastectomy (UM); (2) CPM versus breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Results: Median age at diagnosis was 37 years; 66 % of women indicated that their doctor said that BCS was an option or was recommended. Of all women, 42.9 % had CPM, 26.8 % UM, and 30.4 % BCS. Among women who said the surgical decision was patient-driven, 59.9 % had CPM, 22.8 % BCS, and 17.3 % UM. Clinical characteristics associated with CPM versus BCS included HER2 positivity, nodal involvement, larger tumor size, lower BMI, parity, and testing positive for a BRCA mutation. Emotional and decisional factors associated with CPM versus UM and BCS included anxiety, less fear of recurrence, and reporting a patient-driven decision. Women who reported a physician-driven decision were less likely to have had CPM than both of the other surgeries, whereas higher confidence with the decision was associated with having CPM versus BCS. Conclusions: Many young women with early-stage breast cancer are choosing CPM. The association between CPM and emotional and decisional factors suggest that improved communication together with better psychosocial support may improve the decision-making process.
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