Background: The use of kidneys with multiple renal arteries (MRA) and right kidneys procured laparoscopically for living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of recipients of LDKT using laparoscopically procured MRA and right kidneys. Study Design: We reviewed the medical records of all LDKT recipients with laparoscopically procured kidneys from 2000 to 2009. Pediatric recipients and recipients of positive crossmatch and/or ABO-incompatible transplants were excluded. We compared the outcomes of recipients of MRA kidneys with those receiving single renal artery (SRA) kidneys and the outcomes of recipients of right kidneys with those of left kidneys. Renal function was measured by iothalamate clearance and estimated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Multiple renal artery kidneys (192 2-artery and 18 3-artery kidneys) were used in 210 (18.5%) of 1,134 transplantations. The most common reconstructive technique used for MRA kidneys was a side-to-side anastomosis (64.3%). There were no significant differences in vascular complications (1.1% vs 2.4%, p = 0.17), urologic complications (3.1% vs 2.9%, p = 0.47), graft survival at 1 year (94.6% vs 96.1%, p = 0.37), and 1-year iothalamate clearance (64 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 66 mL/min/1.73 m 2, p = 0.52) between recipients of SRA and MRA kidneys. Five-year graft survival was similar for recipients of SRA and MRA kidneys (83.6% vs 82.6%, p = 0.82) and for recipients of left vs right kidneys (83.7% vs 82.6%, p = 0.70). Conclusions: Excellent long-term outcomes can be obtained after LDKT using laparoscopically procured MRA and right-sided donor kidneys. Unavailability of an SRA left kidney should not preclude LDKT.
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