Liver transplantation may occasionally be indicated in patients with unique clinical scenarios. Little is known regarding the outcomes of patients who have had a pancreatic resection prior to, in combination with, or after liver transplantation. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing liver transplantation from March 1998 to March 2008 identified 17 patients who also underwent pancreatic resection. An additional literature review was performed. Five underwent pancreatic resection prior to liver transplantation (1.7, 3.6, 3.8, 6.8, and 8.1 years), another 9 underwent pancreatic resection together with liver transplantation, and 3 underwent pancreatic resection after liver transplantation (2.2, 2.6, and 3.8 years). Indications for pancreatic resection included cholangiocarcinoma (n = 6), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 2), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), periampullary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), duodenal adenomas (n = 1), and benign pancreatic mass (n = 1). Indications for liver transplantation were metastatic neuroendocrine tumor disease (n = 5), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 5), hepatitis C virus (n = 2), metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), Klatskin tumor (n = 1), alcohol cirrhosis (n = 1), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (n = 1), and chemotherapy-induced cirrhosis (n = 1). One patient died intraoperatively, 7 patients died of tumor recurrence, 2 patients died from transplant complications, and 7 patients are still alive. Pancreatic resection-related complications included 4 pancreatic fistulas. A literature review confirmed liver transplantation/pancreatic resection-related complications. In conclusion, liver transplantation and pancreatic resection remain uncommon, and a good outcome can be achieved. Recurrence of malignant disease is the main factor limiting survival, and specific morbidity may be related to pancreatic resection and liver transplantation.
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