Selecting an appropriate anticonvulsant for treatment of recipients of orthostatic liver transplants who have new-onset epileptic seizures can be challenging because first-line agents may contribute to worsening encephalopathy, alter the plasma concentration of immunosuppressive agents, and result in hepatotoxicity. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease due to alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C. He required two repeat transplantation procedures. After the last procedure, epileptic seizures developed, which were initially managed with phenytoin. However, the patient remained stuporous and mental status fluctuated. Breakthrough seizures later developed in the setting of rejection. Levetiracetam (500 mg orally, twice a day) was chosen for its favorable pharmacokinetic properties as an alternative to phenytoin. By the third day of levetiracetam therapy, the patient became more responsive. At most recent follow-up, 3 months after the start of levetiracetam therapy, the patient was still treated with levetiracetam monotherapy, and seizure control was judged to be excellent.
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