Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2-associated amyloidosis: A recently recognized disease with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics

Samih H. Nasr, Ahmet Dogan, Christopher P. Larsen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

30 Scopus citations

Abstract

Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 is a recently recognized form of amyloidosis, and it has already been established as a frequent form of systemic amyloidosis in the United States, with predominant involvement of kidney and liver. The disease has a strong ethnic bias, affecting mainly Hispanics (particularly Mexicans). Additional ethnic groups prone to develop amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 include Punjabis, First Nations people in British Columbia, and Native Americans.Most patients are elderly who present with chronic renal insufficiency and bland urinary sediment. Proteinuria is variable, being absent altogether in about one third of patients. Liver involvement is frequently an incidental finding. Amyloidosis derived fromleukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 deposits shows a characteristic distribution: in the kidney, there is consistent involvement of cortical interstitium, whereas in the liver, there is a preferential involvement of periportal and pericentral vein regions. Concurrent renal disease is frequent, with diabetic nephropathy and IgA nephropathy being the most common. Patient survival is excellent, likely because of the rarity of cardiac involvement, whereas renal survival is guarded, with a median renal survival of 62 months in those without concurrent renal disease. There is currently no efficacious therapy for amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis. Renal transplantation seems to be a reasonable treatment for patients with advanced renal failure, although the disease may recur in the allograft. The pathogenesis of amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis has not yet been elucidated. It could be a result of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 overexpression by hepatocytes either constitutively (controlled by yetuncharacterized genetic defects) or secondary to hepatocellular damage. It is critical not to misdiagnose amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis as Ig light chain-derived amyloidosis to avoid harmful chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2084-2093
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 6 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

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