Renal manifestations in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) include cysts, angiomyolipoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Unlike many hereditary predisposition syndromes, the spectrum of renal tumors in TSC patients (including both angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma) is broad, with significant morphologic heterogeneity. An improved understanding of histopathologic findings in TSC patients and associated clinicopathologic correlates has significant implications not just in establishing a diagnosis of TSC, but also in the recognition of sporadic tumors occurring secondary to somatic alterations of TSC1/TSC2/MTOR pathway genes and accurate prognostication. In this review, we have discussed issues relevant to clinical management based on histopathologic findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients with TSC. This includes discussions related to screening for TSC, diagnosis of PKD1/TSC2 contiguous gene deletion syndrome, the morphologic spectrum of angiomyolipoma and renal epithelium-derived neoplasia, including the risk of disease progression.
- Renal cell carcinoma
- Renal cysts
- Tuberous sclerosis complex
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine