Purpose: Lenalidomide has significant single-agent activity in relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We demonstrated that lenalidomide can be safely combined with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone); this new combination is known as R2CHOP. The goal of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in newly diagnosed DLBCL. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients were adults with newly diagnosed untreated stages II to IV CD20+ DLBCL. Patients received lenalidomide 25 mg orally per day on days 1 through 10 with standard-dose R-CHOP every 21 days for six cycles. All patients received pegfilgrastim on day 2 of each cycle and aspirin prophylaxis throughout. DLBCL molecular subtype was determined by tumor immunohistochemistry and classified as germinal center B-cell (GCB) versus non-GCB in the R2CHOP patients and 87 control patients with DLBCL from the Lymphoma Database who were treated with conventional R-CHOP. Results: In all, 64 patients with DLBCL were enrolled, and 60 were evaluable for response. The overall response rate was 98% (59 of 60) with 80% (48 of 60) achieving complete response. Event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates at 24 months were 59% (95% CI, 48% to 74%) and 78% (95% CI, 68% to 90%), respectively. In R-CHOP patients, 24-month progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were 28% versus 64% (P < .001) and 46% versus 78% (P < .001) in non-GCB DLBCL versus GCB DLBCL, respectively. In contrast, there was no difference in 24-month PFS or OS for R2CHOP patients on the basis of non-GCB and GCB subtype (60% v 59% [P = .83] and 83% v 75% [P = .61] at 2 years, respectively). Conclusion: R2CHOP shows promising efficacy in DLBCL. The addition of lenalidomide appears to mitigate a negative impact of non-GCB phenotype on patient outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research