Background: Uterine leiomyomas, in contrast to sarcomas, tend to cease growth following menopause. In the setting of a rapidly enlarging uterine mass in a postmenopausal patient, clinical distinction of uterine leiomyoma from sarcoma is difficult and requires pathologic examination. Case presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding and acute blood loss requiring transfusion. She was found to have a rapidly enlarging uterine mass clinically suspicious for sarcoma. An abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. A 15.5 cm partially necrotic intramural mass was identified in the uterine corpus. The tumor was classified as a cellular leiomyoma. RNA sequencing identified a KAT6B-KANSL1 fusion that was confirmed by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic without evidence of disease. Conclusion: Prior studies of uterine leiomyomas have identified KAT6B (previously MORF) rearrangements in uterine leiomyomas, but this case is the first to identify a KAT6B-KANSL1 gene fusion in a uterine leiomyoma. While alterations of MED12 and HMGA2 are most common in uterine leiomyomas, a range of other genetic pathways have been described. Our case contributes to the evolving molecular landscape of uterine leiomyomas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine