### Abstract

We have developed a method to both predict the geometry and the relative stability of point mutants that may be used for arbitrary mutations. The geometry optimization procedure was first tested on a new benchmark of 2141 ordered pairs of X-ray crystal structures of proteins that differ by a single point mutation, the largest data set to date. An empirical energy function, which includes terms representing the energy contributions of the folded and denatured proteins and uses the predicted mutant side chain conformation, was fit to a training set consisting of half of a diverse set of 1816 experimental stability values for single point mutations in 81 different proteins. The data included a substantial number of small to large residue mutations not considered by previous prediction studies. After removing 22 (≈2%) outliers, the stability calculation gave a standard deviation of 1.08 kcal/mol with a correlation coefficient of 0.82. The prediction method was then tested on the remaining half of the experimental data, giving a standard deviation of 1.10 kcal/mol and covariance of 0.66 for 97% of the test set. A regression fit of the energy function to a subset of 137 mutants, for which both native and mutant structures were available, gave a prediction error comparable to that for the complete training set with predicted side chain conformations. We found that about half of the variation is due to conformation-independent residue contributions. Finally, a fit to the experimental stability data using these residue parameters exclusively suggests guidelines for improving protein stability in the absence of detailed structure information.

Original language | English (US) |
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Pages (from-to) | 400-413 |

Number of pages | 14 |

Journal | Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics |

Volume | 57 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Nov 1 2004 |

### Keywords

- Conformation
- Denatured state
- Empirical potential
- Free energy
- Monte Carlo optimization

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Structural Biology
- Biochemistry
- Molecular Biology

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## Cite this

*Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics*,

*57*(2), 400-413. https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.20185