Objective: To test the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) can distinguish low risk of progression (LRP) from intermediate and high risk of progression (IHRP) to prostate cancer (PCa) and if these CRs have the potential to identify men with LRP on needle biopsy that harbor IHRP PCa in the prostate gland. Patients and Methods: Mate pair sequencing of amplified DNA from pure populations of Gleason patterns in 154 frozen specimens from 126 patients obtained between August 14, 2001, and July 15, 2011, was used to detect CRs including abnormal junctions and copy number variations. Potential CR biomarkers with higher incidence in IHRP than in LRP to cancer and having significance in PCa biology were identified. Independent validation was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 152 specimens from 124 patients obtained between February 12, 2002, and July 12, 2008. Results: The number of abnormal junctions did not distinguish LRP from IHRP. Loci corresponding to genes implicated in PCa were more frequently altered in IHRP. Integrated analysis of copy number variations and microarray data yielded 6 potential markers that were more frequently detected in Gleason pattern 3 of a Gleason score 7 of PCa than in Gleason pattern 3 of a Gleason score 6 PCa. Five of those were cross-validated in an independent sample set with statistically significant areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) (P≤.01). Probes detecting deletions in PTEN and CHD1 had AUCs of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.97) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.86), respectively, and probes detecting gains in ASAP1, MYC, and HDAC9 had AUCs of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.59-0.84), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.93), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66-0.89), respectively (for expansion of gene symbols, use search tool at www.genenames.org). Conclusion: Copy number variations in regions encompassing important PCa genes were predictive of cancer significance and have the potential to identify men with LRP PCa by needle biopsy who have IHRP PCa in their prostate gland.
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