We used a laparoscopic technique for the percutaneous placement of the peritoneal end of cerebrospinal fluid shunts in adult patients with obstructive or normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Concurrent with the initial cranial part of the procedure, pneumoperitoneum is established in a routine fashion, and a video-laparoscope and grasping forceps are inserted into the peritoneal cavity. With use of a pacemaker introducer kit, the peritoneal catheter is placed percutaneously under direct laparoscopic vision through a small upper abdominal incision into the peritoneal cavity. At the completion of the procedure, the patency of the assembled shunt system can be verified by observing free flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter tip as the valve is being pumped. We found that this technique is particularly useful in technically challenging cases—for example, those involving obese patients and those who have undergone multiple abdominal operations. No complications associated with the technique were encountered.
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