Lactobacilli Degrade Wheat Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors to Reduce Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Immunogenic Wheat Proteins

Alberto Caminero, Justin L. McCarville, Victor F. Zevallos, Marc Pigrau, Xuechen B. Yu, Jennifer Jury, Heather J. Galipeau, Alexandra V. Clarizio, Javier Casqueiro, Joseph A. Murray, Stephen M. Collins, Armin Alaedini, Premysl Bercik, Detlef Schuppan, Elena F. Verdu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background & Aims: Wheat-related disorders, a spectrum of conditions induced by the ingestion of gluten-containing cereals, have been increasing in prevalence. Patients with celiac disease have gluten-specific immune responses, but the contribution of non-gluten proteins to symptoms in patients with celiac disease or other wheat-related disorders is controversial. Methods: C57BL/6 (control), Myd88–/–, Ticam1–/–, and Il15–/– mice were placed on diets that lacked wheat or gluten, with or without wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), for 1 week. Small intestine tissues were collected and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were measured; we also investigated gut permeability and intestinal transit. Control mice fed ATIs for 1 week were gavaged daily with Lactobacillus strains that had high or low ATI-degrading capacity. Nonobese diabetic/DQ8 mice were sensitized to gluten and fed an ATI diet, a gluten-containing diet or a diet with ATIs and gluten for 2 weeks. Mice were also treated with Lactobacillus strains that had high or low ATI-degrading capacity. Intestinal tissues were collected and IELs, gene expression, gut permeability and intestinal microbiota profiles were measured. Results: In intestinal tissues from control mice, ATIs induced an innate immune response by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to MD2 and CD14, and caused barrier dysfunction in the absence of mucosal damage. Administration of ATIs to gluten-sensitized mice expressing HLA-DQ8 increased intestinal inflammation in response to gluten in the diet. We found ATIs to be degraded by Lactobacillus, which reduced the inflammatory effects of ATIs. Conclusions: ATIs mediate wheat-induced intestinal dysfunction in wild-type mice and exacerbate inflammation to gluten in susceptible mice. Microbiome-modulating strategies, such as administration of bacteria with ATI-degrading capacity, may be effective in patients with wheat-sensitive disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2266-2280
Number of pages15
JournalGastroenterology
Volume156
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Keywords

  • Bacterial Metabolism
  • Food Allergy
  • HLA
  • Microbiome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

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    Caminero, A., McCarville, J. L., Zevallos, V. F., Pigrau, M., Yu, X. B., Jury, J., Galipeau, H. J., Clarizio, A. V., Casqueiro, J., Murray, J. A., Collins, S. M., Alaedini, A., Bercik, P., Schuppan, D., & Verdu, E. F. (2019). Lactobacilli Degrade Wheat Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors to Reduce Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Immunogenic Wheat Proteins. Gastroenterology, 156(8), 2266-2280. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.02.028