Objective: To study the effects of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist with vascular beneficial effects, and glipizide, an insulin secretagogue, on novel inflammatory vascular risk markers in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: We studied 11 subjects without diabetes and 19 matched subjects with diabetes. The subjects with diabetes were randomly assigned to receive either 45 mg daily of pioglitazone (N = 8) or 10 mg daily of glipizide (N = 11) (median dose) for 12 weeks. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and e-selectin were measured by established techniques before and after therapy with either agent. The subjects without diabetes were studied only once. Results: The study subjects with diabetes had higher (P<0.05) LpPLA2, e-selectin, and VCAM-1 levels than did those without diabetes. ICAM-1 levels tended to be higher (P = 0.07) in the study subjects with than in those without diabetes. Neither pioglitazone nor glipizide therapy significantly altered LpPLA2 or VCAM-1 concentrations. While pioglitazone therapy reduced (P<0.05) e-selectin concentrations, glipizide therapy reduced (P<0.03) ICAM-1 concentrations. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated concentrations of the novel vascular risk marker LpPLA2 and inflammatory risk markers e-selectin and VCAM-1. Neither pioglitazone nor glipizide significantly altered LpPLA2, VCAM-1, or highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels after 12 weeks of therapy. In study subjects with type 2 diabetes, e-selectin concentrations declined significantly with pioglitazone therapy, whereas ICAM-1 concentrations decreased significantly with glipizide therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism