Background: Progressive renal failure is a frequent complication after heart transplantation (HTx). It may result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), prompting consideration of kidney Tx after HTx (KAH). Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center study of 268 HTx recipients to evaluate outcomes after KAH compared with HTx recipients with and without ESRD. Results: During a median follow-up of 76 months, ESRD developed in 51 patients (19), and 39 of them (76%) underwent KAH. The mean time from HTx to ESRD was 83 months. The incidence of switching to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free regimen based on sirolimus was significantly lower among recipients with ESRD (6% vs 57%, . p = 0.0001), and prolonged exposure to CNI significantly increased the risk for ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.15; . p < 0.005). Death-censored renal graft survival after KAH was 95%, 95%, and 83% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Median long-term survival of KAH patients was comparable to HTx recipients without ESRD (17.5 vs 17.1 years, . p = 0.27) and significantly better compared with HTx recipients with ESRD (17.5 vs 7.3 years, . p < 0.001). Conclusions: Prolonged exposure to CNI immunosuppression medications significantly increases the risk for ESRD among HTx recipients. KAH is a good therapeutic option for HTx recipients with ESRD, with survival benefit comparable to HTx without ESRD.
- Calcineurin inhibitor
- Heart transplantation
- Kidney transplantation
- Renal failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine