Objective To determine whether there is a persistent decline in kidney function after the first kidney stone event. Patient and Methods Incident symptomatic stone formers and age- and sex-matched controls underwent 2 study visits 90 days apart to assess kidney function, complete a survey, and have their medical records reviewed. Kidney function was compared between stone formers and controls adjusting for clinical, blood, and urine risk factors. Results There were 384 stone formers and 457 controls. At visit 1, a median of 104 days after the stone event, stone formers compared with controls had similar serum creatinine (0.86 vs 0.84 mg/dL; P=.23), higher serum cystatin C (0.83 vs 0.72 mg/L; P<.001), higher urine protein (34.2 vs 19.7 mg/24 h; P<.001) levels, and were more likely to have albuminuria (24 h urine albumin >30 mg: 5.4% vs 2.2%; P=.02). Findings were similar after adjustment for risk factors and at visit 2, a median of 92 days after visit 1. In the 173 stone formers with serum creatinine levels from care before study participation, the mean serum creatinine level was 0.84 mg/dL before the stone event, increased to 0.97 mg/dL (P<.001) at the stone event, but returned to 0.85 mg/dL (P=.38) after the stone event (visit 1). Conclusions Incident symptomatic stone formers have a rise in serum creatinine levels that resolves. However, stone formers have sustained higher cystatin C levels and proteinuria that may affect long-term risk of chronic kidney disease.
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