Joint pituitary-hypothalamic and intrahypothalamic autofeedback construct of pulsatile growth hormone secretion

Leon S. Farhy, Johannes D Veldhuis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) secretion is vividly pulsatile in all mammalian species studied. In a simplified model, self-renewable GH pulsatility can be reproduced by assuming individual, reversible, time-delayed, and threshold-sensitive hypothalamic outflow of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GH release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin; SRIF). However, this basic concept fails to explicate an array of new experimental observations. Accordingly, here we formulate and implement a novel fourfold ensemble construct, wherein 1) systemic GH pulses stimulate long-latency, concentration-dependent; secretion of periventricular-nuclear SRIF, thereby initially quenching and then releasing multiphasic GH volleys (recurrent every 3-3.5 h); 2) SRIF delivered to the anterior pituitary gland competitively antagonizes exocytotic release, but not synthesis, of GH during intervolley intervals; 3) arcuate-nucleus GHRH pulses drive the synthesis and accumulation of GH in saturable somatotrope stores; and 4) a purely intrahypothalamic mechanism sustains high-frequency GH pulses (intervals of 30-60 min) within a volley, assuming short-latency reciprocal coupling between GHRH and SRIF neurons (stimulatory direction) and SRIF and GHRH neurons (inhibitory direction). This two-oscillator formulation explicates (but does not prove) 1) the GHRH-sensitizing action of prior SRIF exposure; 2) a three-site (intrahypothalamic, hypothalamo-pituitary, and somatotrope GH store dependent) mechanism driving rebound-like GH secretion after SRIF withdrawal in the male; 3) an obligatory role for pituitary GH stores in representing rebound GH release in the female; 4) greater irregularity of SRIF than GH release profiles; and 5) a basis for the paradoxical GH-inhibiting action of centrally delivered GHRH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume285
Issue number5 54-5
StatePublished - Nov 2003

Fingerprint

Growth Hormone
Joints
Hormones
Ventral Thalamic Nuclei
Neurons
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Somatostatin

Keywords

  • Feedback
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  • Hormone pulsatility
  • Hypothalamus
  • Mathematical model
  • Somatostatin
  • Somatotropic axis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology

Cite this

@article{259ab7e7b88840c59034647815205c54,
title = "Joint pituitary-hypothalamic and intrahypothalamic autofeedback construct of pulsatile growth hormone secretion",
abstract = "Growth hormone (GH) secretion is vividly pulsatile in all mammalian species studied. In a simplified model, self-renewable GH pulsatility can be reproduced by assuming individual, reversible, time-delayed, and threshold-sensitive hypothalamic outflow of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GH release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin; SRIF). However, this basic concept fails to explicate an array of new experimental observations. Accordingly, here we formulate and implement a novel fourfold ensemble construct, wherein 1) systemic GH pulses stimulate long-latency, concentration-dependent; secretion of periventricular-nuclear SRIF, thereby initially quenching and then releasing multiphasic GH volleys (recurrent every 3-3.5 h); 2) SRIF delivered to the anterior pituitary gland competitively antagonizes exocytotic release, but not synthesis, of GH during intervolley intervals; 3) arcuate-nucleus GHRH pulses drive the synthesis and accumulation of GH in saturable somatotrope stores; and 4) a purely intrahypothalamic mechanism sustains high-frequency GH pulses (intervals of 30-60 min) within a volley, assuming short-latency reciprocal coupling between GHRH and SRIF neurons (stimulatory direction) and SRIF and GHRH neurons (inhibitory direction). This two-oscillator formulation explicates (but does not prove) 1) the GHRH-sensitizing action of prior SRIF exposure; 2) a three-site (intrahypothalamic, hypothalamo-pituitary, and somatotrope GH store dependent) mechanism driving rebound-like GH secretion after SRIF withdrawal in the male; 3) an obligatory role for pituitary GH stores in representing rebound GH release in the female; 4) greater irregularity of SRIF than GH release profiles; and 5) a basis for the paradoxical GH-inhibiting action of centrally delivered GHRH.",
keywords = "Feedback, Growth hormone-releasing hormone, Hormone pulsatility, Hypothalamus, Mathematical model, Somatostatin, Somatotropic axis",
author = "Farhy, {Leon S.} and Veldhuis, {Johannes D}",
year = "2003",
month = "11",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "285",
journal = "American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology",
issn = "1931-857X",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "5 54-5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Joint pituitary-hypothalamic and intrahypothalamic autofeedback construct of pulsatile growth hormone secretion

AU - Farhy, Leon S.

AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D

PY - 2003/11

Y1 - 2003/11

N2 - Growth hormone (GH) secretion is vividly pulsatile in all mammalian species studied. In a simplified model, self-renewable GH pulsatility can be reproduced by assuming individual, reversible, time-delayed, and threshold-sensitive hypothalamic outflow of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GH release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin; SRIF). However, this basic concept fails to explicate an array of new experimental observations. Accordingly, here we formulate and implement a novel fourfold ensemble construct, wherein 1) systemic GH pulses stimulate long-latency, concentration-dependent; secretion of periventricular-nuclear SRIF, thereby initially quenching and then releasing multiphasic GH volleys (recurrent every 3-3.5 h); 2) SRIF delivered to the anterior pituitary gland competitively antagonizes exocytotic release, but not synthesis, of GH during intervolley intervals; 3) arcuate-nucleus GHRH pulses drive the synthesis and accumulation of GH in saturable somatotrope stores; and 4) a purely intrahypothalamic mechanism sustains high-frequency GH pulses (intervals of 30-60 min) within a volley, assuming short-latency reciprocal coupling between GHRH and SRIF neurons (stimulatory direction) and SRIF and GHRH neurons (inhibitory direction). This two-oscillator formulation explicates (but does not prove) 1) the GHRH-sensitizing action of prior SRIF exposure; 2) a three-site (intrahypothalamic, hypothalamo-pituitary, and somatotrope GH store dependent) mechanism driving rebound-like GH secretion after SRIF withdrawal in the male; 3) an obligatory role for pituitary GH stores in representing rebound GH release in the female; 4) greater irregularity of SRIF than GH release profiles; and 5) a basis for the paradoxical GH-inhibiting action of centrally delivered GHRH.

AB - Growth hormone (GH) secretion is vividly pulsatile in all mammalian species studied. In a simplified model, self-renewable GH pulsatility can be reproduced by assuming individual, reversible, time-delayed, and threshold-sensitive hypothalamic outflow of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GH release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin; SRIF). However, this basic concept fails to explicate an array of new experimental observations. Accordingly, here we formulate and implement a novel fourfold ensemble construct, wherein 1) systemic GH pulses stimulate long-latency, concentration-dependent; secretion of periventricular-nuclear SRIF, thereby initially quenching and then releasing multiphasic GH volleys (recurrent every 3-3.5 h); 2) SRIF delivered to the anterior pituitary gland competitively antagonizes exocytotic release, but not synthesis, of GH during intervolley intervals; 3) arcuate-nucleus GHRH pulses drive the synthesis and accumulation of GH in saturable somatotrope stores; and 4) a purely intrahypothalamic mechanism sustains high-frequency GH pulses (intervals of 30-60 min) within a volley, assuming short-latency reciprocal coupling between GHRH and SRIF neurons (stimulatory direction) and SRIF and GHRH neurons (inhibitory direction). This two-oscillator formulation explicates (but does not prove) 1) the GHRH-sensitizing action of prior SRIF exposure; 2) a three-site (intrahypothalamic, hypothalamo-pituitary, and somatotrope GH store dependent) mechanism driving rebound-like GH secretion after SRIF withdrawal in the male; 3) an obligatory role for pituitary GH stores in representing rebound GH release in the female; 4) greater irregularity of SRIF than GH release profiles; and 5) a basis for the paradoxical GH-inhibiting action of centrally delivered GHRH.

KW - Feedback

KW - Growth hormone-releasing hormone

KW - Hormone pulsatility

KW - Hypothalamus

KW - Mathematical model

KW - Somatostatin

KW - Somatotropic axis

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0142031622&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0142031622&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 12869363

AN - SCOPUS:0142031622

VL - 285

JO - American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

JF - American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

SN - 1931-857X

IS - 5 54-5

ER -