Objectives: Elongation of mitral valve leaflets is a phenotypic feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and some surgeons advocate plication of the anterior leaflet at the time of septal myectomy. The present study investigates mitral valve leaflet length and outcomes of patients undergoing septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: We reviewed the records and echocardiograms of 564 patients who underwent transaortic septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy between February 2015 and April 2018. Extended septal myectomy without plication of the anterior leaflet was the standard procedure. From intraoperative prebypass transesophageal echocardiograms, we measured anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets and their coaptation length. For comparison, we performed these mitral valve leaflet measurements in 90 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and 92 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement in the same period. Among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy, we assessed left ventricular outflow tract gradient relief and 1-year survival in relation to leaflet length. Results: Median patient age (interquartile range) was 60.3 (50.2-67.7) years, and 54.1% were male. Concomitant mitral valve repair was performed in 36 patients (6.4%), and mitral valve replacement was performed in 8 patients (1.4%), primarily for intrinsic mitral valve disease. Patients in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cohort had significantly longer mitral valve leaflet measurements compared with patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement (P < .001 for all 3 measurements). Preoperative resting left ventricular outflow tract gradients were not related to leaflet length (<30 mm, median 49 [21, 81.5] mm Hg vs ≥30 mm, 50.5 [21, 77] mm Hg; P = .76). Further, gradient reduction after myectomy was not related to leaflet length; patients with less than 30 mm anterior leaflet length had a median gradient reduction of 33 (69, 6) mm Hg compared with 36.5 (62, 6) mm Hg for patients with leaflet length 30 mm or more (P = .36). Anterior mitral valve leaflet length was not associated with increased 1-year mortality (P = .758). Conclusions: Our study confirms previous findings that patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have slight (5 mm) elongation of mitral valve leaflets. In contrast to other reports, increased anterior mitral valve leaflet length was not associated with higher left ventricular outflow tract gradients. Importantly, we found no significant relationship between anterior mitral valve leaflet length and postoperative left ventricular outflow tract resting gradients or gradient relief. Thus, in the absence of intrinsic mitral valve disease, transaortic septal myectomy with focus on extending the excision beyond the point of septal contact is sufficient for almost all patients.
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- mitral valve
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine