Objectives: To report our experience with intravascular and hybrid intra-operative stent placement for baffle obstruction in patients with complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA) after the atrial switch (Mustard/Senning) operation. Background: Venous baffle obstruction is a challenging complication after atrial switch operation in patients with TGA. Traditional treatment options include intravascular stenting or surgery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of Mayo Clinic's electronic medical record was completed to identify consecutive pediatric and adult patients with TGA after atrial switch who underwent baffle stent implantation from 1994 to 2015. Results: Overall, 64 patients were referred for cardiac catheterization, in whom 47 (73%) were noted to have hemodynamic and angiographic evidence of baffle obstruction. A total of 20 patients mean age 33 (range: 8–46) years old underwent stent implantation of baffle stenosis at a mean of 33 (range: 7.5–45) years after initial atrial switch operation (Mustard, n = 19; Senning, n = 1). Overall, 27 baffles were stented in 20 patients via the following approaches: intravascular (17); hybrid surgical (3); staged intravascular & hybrid (2). Sites of stent placement were: superior vena cava (SVC) (13); inferior vena cava (IVC) (9); pulmonary venous baffle (5). Three patients had stent placement in the SVC and IVC baffles during the same procedure. Procedural adverse events occurred in 2/22 cases (9%) including creation of unintentional baffle leak (n = 1) and stent migration (n = 1). There was no procedure-related mortality. At follow-up (median 2, range 0.02–10 years), significantly improved NYHA class and mean Doppler baffle gradient were demonstrated (P < 0.05). Mild baffle re-stenosis (mean Doppler gradient; 2–3 mmHg) occurred in two patients who have not required re-intervention. Trivial baffle leak was noted in four patients. Baffle re-intervention was only occurred in one patient. One patient with pre-procedural Class IV symptoms died 3.5 months after stent implantation. Conclusions: This study is the largest reported experience of intravascular and intra-operative hybrid stent placement for patients with TGA after atrial switch. Transcatheter and minimally invasive hybrid intraoperative surgical stent placement are an effective strategy for relief of systemic and pulmonary venous baffle obstruction.
- baffle obstruction
- hybrid stent placement
- transposition of the great arteries
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine