Purpose: Preclinical studies of mafosfamide, a preactivated cyclophosphamide analog, were performed to define a tolerable and potentially active target concentration for intrathecal (IT) administration. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of IT mafosfamide was performed to determine a dose for subsequent phase II trials. Patients and Methods: In vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed in MCF-7, Molt-4, and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Feasibility and pharmacokinetic studies were performed in nonhuman primates. These preclinical studies were followed by a phase I trial in patients with neoplastic meningitis. There were five dose levels ranging from 1 mg to 6.5 mg. Serial CSF samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic studies in a subset of patients with Ommaya reservoirs. Results: The cytotoxic target exposure for mafosfamide was 10 μmol/L. Preclinical studies demonstrated that this concentration could be easily achieved in ventricular CSF after intraventricular dosing. In the phase I clinical trial, headache was the dose-limiting toxicity. Headache was ameliorated at 5 mg by prolonging the infusion rate to 20 minutes, but dose-limiting headache occurred at 6.5 mg dose with prolonged infusion. Ventricular CSF mafosfamide concentrations at 5 mg exceeded target cytotoxic concentrations after an intraventricular dose, but lumbar CSF concentrations 2 hours after the dose were less than 10 μmol/L Therefore, a strategy to alternate dosing between the intralumbar and intraventricular routes was tested. Seven of 30 registrants who were assessable for response had a partial response, and six had stable disease. Conclusion: The recommended phase II dose for IT mafosfamide, administered without concomitant analgesia, is 5 mg over 20 minutes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research