The gastrointestinal contribution to carbohydrate metabolism includes carbohydrate absorption and the release of gastrointestinal hormones that interact with the endocrine pancreas. To learn the contributions to the enteroinsular axis from different levels of the gastrointestinal tract and different nutrients in chyme, we determined serum concentrations of glucose, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), insulin, and glucagon postprandially in six normal subjects who underwent diversion of chyme just proximal to an occlusive balloon at the ligament of Treitz and jejunal infusion of saline or chyme carbohydrate, protein, and lipid, separately or in combination. Postprandial elevations of serum glucose, GIP, and insulin and decrease of serum glucagon were elicited predominantly from the bowel and its contents distal to the ligament of Treitz. In this segment, each chyme nutrient (but especially carbohydrate) significantly stimulated factors affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Protein and lipid were able to block carbohydrate- induced glucagon inhibition. The gastroduodenal segment, although containing several proposed insulinotropic hormones (gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin), had no effect on serum glucose or glucagon and stimulated only small insulin and GIP responses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical