Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia

Jonathan M Holmes, Danielle L. Chandler, Stephen P. Christiansen, Eileen E. Birch, Erick Bothun, Daniel Laby, B. Michele Melia, Michael X. Repka, David I. Silbert, V. Lori Zeto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements for the prism and alternate cover test (PACT) at distance and at near fixation. Methods: In a test-retest reliability study, 143 children aged 60 months or younger with esotropia were examined by 2 masked examiners on 1 or 2 occasions yielding 199 test-retest pairs for PACT at distance fixation and 239 test-retest pairs for PACT at near fixation. Results: For angles greater than 20 prism diopters (PD), the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±7.3 PD and ±10.4 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±8.3 PD and ±11.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. For angles of 10 to 20 PD, the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±4.1 PD and ±5.8 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±3.3 PD and ±4.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. Conclusion: In childhood esotropia, differences of 12 PD or more for angles greater than 20 PD and differences of 6 PD or more for angles between 10 PD and 20 PD are likely to indicate real change. Smaller differences could be real change but could also be due to measurement error.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Ophthalmology
Volume127
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Esotropia
Reproducibility of Results

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Holmes, J. M., Chandler, D. L., Christiansen, S. P., Birch, E. E., Bothun, E., Laby, D., ... Zeto, V. L. (2009). Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia. Archives of Ophthalmology, 127(1), 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.548

Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia. / Holmes, Jonathan M; Chandler, Danielle L.; Christiansen, Stephen P.; Birch, Eileen E.; Bothun, Erick; Laby, Daniel; Melia, B. Michele; Repka, Michael X.; Silbert, David I.; Zeto, V. Lori.

In: Archives of Ophthalmology, Vol. 127, No. 1, 01.2009, p. 59-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Holmes, JM, Chandler, DL, Christiansen, SP, Birch, EE, Bothun, E, Laby, D, Melia, BM, Repka, MX, Silbert, DI & Zeto, VL 2009, 'Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia', Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.548
Holmes, Jonathan M ; Chandler, Danielle L. ; Christiansen, Stephen P. ; Birch, Eileen E. ; Bothun, Erick ; Laby, Daniel ; Melia, B. Michele ; Repka, Michael X. ; Silbert, David I. ; Zeto, V. Lori. / Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia. In: Archives of Ophthalmology. 2009 ; Vol. 127, No. 1. pp. 59-65.
@article{13201d4cbafd45479ad2262f9bac5464,
title = "Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia",
abstract = "Objective: To determine 95{\%} limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements for the prism and alternate cover test (PACT) at distance and at near fixation. Methods: In a test-retest reliability study, 143 children aged 60 months or younger with esotropia were examined by 2 masked examiners on 1 or 2 occasions yielding 199 test-retest pairs for PACT at distance fixation and 239 test-retest pairs for PACT at near fixation. Results: For angles greater than 20 prism diopters (PD), the 95{\%} limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±7.3 PD and ±10.4 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±8.3 PD and ±11.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. For angles of 10 to 20 PD, the 95{\%} limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±4.1 PD and ±5.8 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±3.3 PD and ±4.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. Conclusion: In childhood esotropia, differences of 12 PD or more for angles greater than 20 PD and differences of 6 PD or more for angles between 10 PD and 20 PD are likely to indicate real change. Smaller differences could be real change but could also be due to measurement error.",
author = "Holmes, {Jonathan M} and Chandler, {Danielle L.} and Christiansen, {Stephen P.} and Birch, {Eileen E.} and Erick Bothun and Daniel Laby and Melia, {B. Michele} and Repka, {Michael X.} and Silbert, {David I.} and Zeto, {V. Lori}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.548",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "127",
pages = "59--65",
journal = "JAMA Ophthalmology",
issn = "2168-6165",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Interobserver reliability of the prism and alternate cover test in children with esotropia

AU - Holmes, Jonathan M

AU - Chandler, Danielle L.

AU - Christiansen, Stephen P.

AU - Birch, Eileen E.

AU - Bothun, Erick

AU - Laby, Daniel

AU - Melia, B. Michele

AU - Repka, Michael X.

AU - Silbert, David I.

AU - Zeto, V. Lori

PY - 2009/1

Y1 - 2009/1

N2 - Objective: To determine 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements for the prism and alternate cover test (PACT) at distance and at near fixation. Methods: In a test-retest reliability study, 143 children aged 60 months or younger with esotropia were examined by 2 masked examiners on 1 or 2 occasions yielding 199 test-retest pairs for PACT at distance fixation and 239 test-retest pairs for PACT at near fixation. Results: For angles greater than 20 prism diopters (PD), the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±7.3 PD and ±10.4 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±8.3 PD and ±11.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. For angles of 10 to 20 PD, the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±4.1 PD and ±5.8 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±3.3 PD and ±4.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. Conclusion: In childhood esotropia, differences of 12 PD or more for angles greater than 20 PD and differences of 6 PD or more for angles between 10 PD and 20 PD are likely to indicate real change. Smaller differences could be real change but could also be due to measurement error.

AB - Objective: To determine 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements for the prism and alternate cover test (PACT) at distance and at near fixation. Methods: In a test-retest reliability study, 143 children aged 60 months or younger with esotropia were examined by 2 masked examiners on 1 or 2 occasions yielding 199 test-retest pairs for PACT at distance fixation and 239 test-retest pairs for PACT at near fixation. Results: For angles greater than 20 prism diopters (PD), the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±7.3 PD and ±10.4 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±8.3 PD and ±11.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. For angles of 10 to 20 PD, the 95% limits of agreement on a measurement and on a difference between 2 measurements were ±4.1 PD and ±5.8 PD, respectively, for PACT at distance and ±3.3 PD and ±4.7 PD, respectively, for PACT at near. Conclusion: In childhood esotropia, differences of 12 PD or more for angles greater than 20 PD and differences of 6 PD or more for angles between 10 PD and 20 PD are likely to indicate real change. Smaller differences could be real change but could also be due to measurement error.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58449101069&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58449101069&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.548

DO - 10.1001/archophthalmol.2008.548

M3 - Article

C2 - 19139339

AN - SCOPUS:58449101069

VL - 127

SP - 59

EP - 65

JO - JAMA Ophthalmology

JF - JAMA Ophthalmology

SN - 2168-6165

IS - 1

ER -