Background Several specialty societies participate in the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign in an attempt to reduce waste in health care spending. We surveyed internal medicine (IM) residents with an objective of classifying knowledge of and confidence in using the American Society of Hematology (ASH) CW principles in hemostasis, thrombosis, and non-malignant hematology. Methods Multi-institutional study of IM residents at 5 academic training programs in the United States. A 10-question, case-based multiple choice test, with each question accompanied by a 5-point Likert-scale confidence assessment, was distributed electronically. Responses were summarized with frequencies and percentages or medians and ranges, as appropriate. Two sample t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare confidence and knowledge scores. Results Of 892 IM residents, 174 (19.5%) responded to all questions. Overall, residents answered a median of 7 of 10 questions correctly (range 2–10) and median resident confidence in their responses was 3.1 (on a 5-point scale). Correct responses were significantly associated with higher confidence for all but one question. Having a hematology rotation experience was significantly associated with more correct responses and with higher confidence (p = 0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions IM residents at several academic hospitals have variable knowledge of ASH-CW guidelines in thrombosis and hemostasis/non-malignant hematology. Residents who have done hematology rotations, particularly a hematology consult rotation, were more likely to answer questions correctly and to be more confident that their answers were correct. Adequate clinical exposure and training in cost-effective care is essential to train clinicians who are cost-conscious in any specialty.
ASJC Scopus subject areas