Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1F3]

William P. Arend, Christopher H. Evans

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

13 Scopus citations


The pleiotropic, and ubiquitous inflammatory activities of interleukin-1 (IL-1) suggested to many investigators that natural inhibitory mechanisms or molecules must exist. IL-1 inhibitors theoretically work at the levels of synthesis, secretion, receptor, or post-receptor intracellular pathways in cells. Early studies had described IL-1 inhibitory bioactivities in human urine, and in a variety of cell supernatants. However, many of these activities turned out to be artifacts of bioassay systems or remained uncharacterized. At a symposium, in Ann Arbor, MI, two different groups first reported bioactivities known to be interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). The dialyzed and concentrated urine of a patient with acute monocytic leukemia, and fever inhibited the effects of IL-1 on induction of PGE2, and collagenase production by cultured human dermal fibroblasts. The supernatants of human monocytes cultured on adherent immune complexes exhibited an activity inhibitory toward IL-1 stimulation of proliferation of murine thymocytes. IL-IRa is the first described naturally occurring specific receptor antagonist of any cytokine or hormone like molecule. The chapter reviews the characteristics of the IL-1Ra gene and protein isoforms, biological role in normal physiology and in disease, potential therapeutic uses of exogenous administration, and areas of current inquiry and research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Cytokine Handbook
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages40
ISBN (Electronic)9780080518794
ISBN (Print)9780126896633
StatePublished - Jul 7 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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