Background: Recent clinical trials have suggested that blockade of interleukin-1 (IL-1) can have a favorable impact on patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. However, the mechanism of antagonism of this specific cytokine in mediating cardiac disease remains unclear. Hence, we sought to determine the influence of IL-1 blockade on acute hypertensive remodeling. Methods: Transverse aortic constriction was performed in C57BL mice with or without intraperitoneal administration of interleukin 1 receptor antagonism (IL-1Ra). Function, structure, and molecular diagnostics were subsequently performed and analyzed. Results: Six weeks after transverse aortic constriction, a progressive decline of ejection fraction and increases in left ventricle mass and dimensions were effectively mitigated with IL-1Ra. Transverse aortic constriction resulted in an expected profile of hypertrophic markers including myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, and skeletal muscle actin, which were all significantly lower in IL-1Ra treated mice. Although trichrome staining 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction demonstrated similar levels of fibrosis, IL-1ra–reduced expression of collagen-1, tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1, and periostin. Investigating the angiogenic response to pressure overload, similar levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed, but IL-1Ra was associated with more stromal cell-derived factor-1. Immune cell infiltration (macrophages and lymphocytes) was also decreased in IL-1Ra treated mice. Similarly, cytokine concentrations of IL-1, IL-18, and IL-6 were all reduced in IL-1Ra–treated animals. Conclusions: Interleukin-1Ra prevents the progression toward heart failure associated with acute pressure overload. This functional response was associated with reductions in mediators of fibrosis, cellular infiltration, and cytokine production. These results provide mechanistic insight into recent clinical trials and could springboard future investigations in patients with pressure-overload–based cardiomyopathies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine