Interaction between APOE Genotype and Diabetes in Longevity

Mitsuru Shinohara, Kaoru Suzuki, Guojun Bu, Naoyuki Sato

Abstract

Background: While both apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and diabetes affect longevity as well as Alzheimer's disease, their relationship remains to be elucidated. Objective: The current study investigated the potential interaction between diabetes and APOE for lifespan and their relationship with cognitive status. Methods: We reviewed the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) dataset, which documents longitudinally clinical records of 24,967 individuals with APOE genotype and diabetic status. Results: Diabetes was associated with shorter lifespan in APOE3 carriers (n = 12,415, HR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.17-1.42, p < 0.001) and APOE2 carriers (n = 2,390, HR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.10-1.69, p = 0.016), while such associations were weaker and not significant in APOE4 carriers (n = 9,490, HR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.99-1.24, p = 0.162). As there is a significant interactive effect of cognitive status and diabetes on lifespan (p < 0.001), we stratified subjects by cognitive status and observed persistent APOE-dependent harmful effects of diabetes in nondemented individuals but not demented individuals. Notably, questionnaire-based activity status, with which we previously observed an association between APOE genotype and longevity, was also significantly affected by diabetes only in non-APOE4 carriers. Conclusion: The effects of diabetes on longevity vary among APOE genotype. These effects are observed in nondemented individuals and are potentially associated with activity status during their lifespan.

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